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The KEGG pathways are from the Kanehisa laboratories with thanks and the figures are subject to KEGG copyright conditions. Please read this in relation to KEGG licencing and funding.

The many genes implicated in these diseases are not randomly distributed in terms of function, and group together in clearly defined signalling networks. This may partly be due to hypothesis driven research , but the agnostically-discovered genes, e.g. from Genome-wide association studies, or from chromosomal translocations (DISC1), tend to plug in to the same networks. Over time, the multiple genes implicated in each disorder have etched out signalling pathways that may define the pathology of the disease.Hence the title PolygenicPathways. Examples of these pathways or interactomes can be accessed from this page.Some of these pathways are extensions of those decribed in these papers and are the results of decades of worldwide genetics contributions and risk factor studies from many sources.

These pathways have a lot in common. The genes are related to the known pathologies of each disease. For example neurotransmitter networks, ERBB signalling and LTP inschizophrenia, circadian rhythm, growth factor and PI signalling in Bipolar disorder, apoptosis, oxidative stress, homocysteine pathways, cholesterol and lipoprotein, APP processing in Alzheimer's disease, .....etc. They ALL include many networks related to the immune system and ALL include various pathogen entry and defense pathways. These may be related to the viral and bacterial risk factors associated with each disease. The genes thus trace out pathways relevent to the inherent pathology of each disease and to the environmental risk factors.

There is a conglomerate datasheet of viruses, bacteria and other pathogens implicated in many human diseases at this page


Plaques and tangles and herpes simplex full text

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DISC1 interactome including interactions with viruses (2007 and 2010 updates)

Glutamatergic pathways in Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (Lower resolution with gene information )

Schizophrenia Susceptibility Genes Directly Implicated in the Life Cycles of Pathogens: Cytomegalovirus, Influenza, Herpes simplex, Rubella, and Toxoplasma gondii Schiz Bull 2009 Figures

Stress activated kinase pathway in Bipolar disorder and Schizophrenia From:- EIF2B and oligodendrocyte vulnerability: Where nature and nurture meet in Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia ? Schiz Bull.33,1343-1353. 2007: By permission of Oxford University Press

KEGG pathway analysis of schizophrenia susceptibility genes Abstracts

Cholesterol and lipoprotein-related genes in Alzheimer's disease: Convergence of genes implicated in Alzheimer's disease on the cerebral cholesterol shuttle: APP, cholesterol, lipoproteins, and atherosclerosis. Neurochem Int 2007


KEGG pathway analysis of the herpes simplex life cycle

KEGG pathway analysis of the AIDS virus HIV-1/host interactions

KEGG pathway analysis of the Helicobacter pylori/Host interactome

KEGG pathway analysis of the T.Gondii host interactome

External published pathways

A noise-reduction GWAS analysis implicates altered regulation of neurite outgrowth and guidance in autism.Hussmann et al, 2011

Pathway analysis of GWAS provides new insights into genetic susceptibility to 3 inflammatory diseases.Eleftherohorinou et al, 2009 (Crohn's disease, Type 1 diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis Figure

Gene regulatory network reveals oxidative stress as the underlying molecular mechanism of type 2 diabetes and hypertension.Jesmin et al, 2010 . Figs

Identifying consensus disease pathways in Parkinson's disease using an integrative systems biology approach.Edwards et al, 2011 Figs

A towards-multidimensional screening approach to predict candidate genes of rheumatoid arthritis based on SNP, structural and functional annotations Zhang et al, 2010 Figs.

Shared Molecular and Functional Frameworks among Five Complex Human Disorders: A Comparative Study on Interactomes Linked to Susceptibility Genes PlosOne Menon and Farina, 2011

Pathway Tools version 13.0: integrated software for pathway/genome informatics and systems biology Karp et al, 2010

Improved prognostic classification of breast cancer defined by antagonistic activation patterns of immune response pathway modules Teschendorff et al, 2010

A Genomic Strategy to Elucidate Modules of Oncogenic Pathway Signaling Networks Chang et al, 2010

NetPro An interactome of Alzheimer's disease related genes from Molecular Connections

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