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KEGG PATHWAY ANALYSIS of the T.Gondii interactome

Please cite: Toxoplasmosis and polygenic disease susceptibility genes: Extensive T.Gondii host/pathogen interactome enrichment in nine psychiatric or neurological disorders J.Pathogens , 2013

Host Interactome genes in common with susceptibility genes in neuropsychiatric disorders

           

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Host genes and proteins used by the Toxoplama gondii during its life cycle.

If you know of other direct interactions, (or corrections) please with Pubmed ID, gene symbol/accession number and parasite interacting protein. Thank you.

T.Gondii life cycle

Image by LadyofHats [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

While cats are usually considered the main primary host Lappin, 2010 T.Gondii has been observed in a number of other species including dogs Hosseininejad et al, 2011 , farmyard pigs Dubey et al, 2012 , cattle, Zhou et al, 2012 sheep and horses, Raeghi et al, 2011 domestic ducks, chickens, turkeys and rabbits Harfoush and Tahoon 2010 a wide range of wild animals Wendte et al, 2011 and also in unwashed fruit and vegetables Alvarado-Esquivel et al, 2011 or as waterborne infections Baldursson and Karanis, 2011 . Also found in freshwater Eurasian Chadwick et al, 2013 and sea otters, likely from infectious, environmentally resistant oocysts shed in the faeces of felids and transported via freshwater runoff into the marine ecosystem Conrad et al, 2005: Has also been found in mussels Miller et al, 2008 and oysters Esmerini, 2010. Host infection can arise from contaminated meat or dairy products (reviewd in Tenter et al, 2000 )

Besides the specific interactions listed below, T.Gondii is an obligate parasite obliged to scavenge certain nutrients and other substrates from the host, whose drainage is likely to impact upon host cellular function. These organisms also posses many enzymes similar to those of the host and may also donate metabolites to host cells.The parasitophorous vacuole also contains small pores that allow the bidirectional flux of small molecules (<1300–1900Da) such as glucose, amino acids, nucleotides, and ions between host and parasite: This exchange is not energy dependent Schwab et al, 1994 Laliberté and Carruthers, 2008

Host substrates used by T.Gondii include:-

  • Arginine Fox et al, 2004
  • Cholesterol Coppens et al, 2000
    • Isoprenoids : The parasite salvages farnesyl diphosphate / geranylgeranyl diphosphate Li et al, 2013
  • Folic acid : Although the parasite contains the apparatus necessary for de novo folate biosynthesis it also posseses a high affinity capture system for folic acid Massimine et al, 2005
  • Glucose Macrae et al, 2012
  • Glutamine Blume et al, 2009
  • Iron Gail et al, 2004
  • Lipoic acid Crawford et al, 2006
  • Palmitate is incorporated into cholesteryl esters: The parasite contains acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) and host fatty acids and low-density lipoproteins directly serve as Toxoplasma ACAT activators by stimulating cholesteryl ester synthesis and lipid droplet biogenesis.Nishikawa et al, 2005
  • Purines: T.Gondii and other parasitic protozoa are unable to synthesise a purine ring and rely on purine salvage from the host: The parasite posesses transporters for this purpose including those with affinity for :-
  • Polyamines: T,Gondii is a polyamine auxotroph (putrescine, spermine, spermidine) The preliminary enzymes of polyamine synthesis, ornithine decarboxylase and arginine decarboxylase are not present in T.Gondi, which nevertheless actively transports arginine and ornithine, which are converted via the arginine dihydrolase pathway to citrulline and carbamoyl phosphate, resulting in the formation of ATP via carbamate kinase: Cook et al, 2007 : T.Gondii also possesses a putrescine uptake system : Seabra et al, 2004
  • T.Gondii acquires serine, ethanolamine, and choline, used for the synthesis of phosphatidylserine , phosphatidylethanolamine , and phosphatidylcholine Gupta et al, 2005
  • Sugars: The parasite uses host sugars for energy and to generate glycoconjugates that play a role in its survival and virulence: T.Gondii sugar transporters are able to capture glucose, mannose, galactose, hexose and fructose Blume et al, 2009
  • Tryptophan Pfefferkorn, 1984
  • Host organelles, including mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum are also recruited to the parasitophorous vacuole Laliberté and Carruthers, 2008 Controlled by parasitic MAF1 protein and limited to type 1 and III strains Pernas et al, 2014

Chemicals donated by T.Gondii

  • Ammonia is released from T.Gondii and other parasites by aquaglyceroporins Zeuthen et al, 2006
  • The parasite possesses two genes encoding for tyrosine hydroxylases capable of synthesising L-DOPA and thus dopamine, perhaps explaining the increase in cerebral dopamine levels observed in infected mice Gaskell et al, 2009
  • The parasite possesses a 15-lipoxygenase and generates Lipoxin A4 (LXA4) , an antiinflammatory agent, from arachidonic acid . Parasite generated LXA4 reduces IL12 secretion from dendritic cells Bannenberg et al, 2004
  • T.Gondii secrets a protein phosphatase 2c into the host cell and directs it to the nucleus of infected cells: This was shown to be have activity at typical PP2C substrates casein and myelin basic protein (MBP) Gilbert et al, 2007
  • TgPDCD5 , a protein secreted by T.Gondii induces apoptosis in non-infected (bystander) cella Bannai et al, 2008
  • The parasite secretes a toxolysin (TLN4): T. gondii tachyzoites store TLN4 in the micronemes and secrete it in response to elevated calcium, suggesting a role in cell invasion.Laliberté and Carruthers, 2011
  • T.Gondii induces the production of natural ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor receptors from platelets (PPARA PPARD PPARG ). Infection induces platelets to release high levels of Lipoxin A4, 5,15-diHETE, and 15-HETE at very high levels Marion et al, 2010
  • The parasite secretes a phosphatidylserine decarboxylase that metabolises the host substrate Gupta et al, 2012

Host/pathogen interactions

  1. 17 beta-estradiol, diethylstilbestrol, and alpha-dienestrol, increase the susceptibility of mice and brain cyst formation, to T. gondii Pung and Luster 1986
  2. ABCA4 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family A (ABC1), member 4: Polymophisms influence congenital toxoplasmosis Jamieson et al, 2008
  3. ABCB1 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B (MDR/TAP), member 1 (P-glycoprotein) involved in the transport of cholesterol to the parasite Bottoba et al, 2009
  4. ACO1 aconitase 1, soluble (irp1) . T. gondii infection results in increased activity in the iron response protein IRP1 which stabilizes transferrin receptor TFRC mRNA from degradation Gail et al, 2004
  5. ACTG1 actin, gamma 1 binds to T.Gondii toxophilin Poupel et al, 2000
  6. ACTN1 binds to T.Gondii GRA8 Ahn et al, 2006
  7. ADAM10 upregulated by T.Gondii in macrophages and possibly involved in the processing of pro-alpha v and pro-beta 3 to generate functional mature integrin alpha v beta 3 molecules ITGA5, ITGB3 Seipel et al, 2010
  8. AHR aryl hydrocarbon receptor: Infectivity increased in AHR knockout mice Sanchez et al, 2010
  9. AHSG (fetuin) alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein binds to MIC1 Lourenço et al, 2001
  10. AIFM1 apoptosis-inducing factor, mitochondrion-associated, 1 : AIFM2 Binds to T.Gondii TgHsp70 Hwang et al, 2010
  11. AKT1 v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1: T. gondii promotes AKT1 and PIK3CA activation Muniz-Feliciano et al, 2013 .
  12. ALCAM activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule: toxoplasmic encephalitis severity in C57BL/6 mice is associated with increased ALCAM and VCAM1 CNS expression and higher blood-brain barrier permeability.Silva et al, 2010
  13. ALDH1A2 aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member A2: Expression increased n the spleen, liver, lung and small intestine of mice infected with T. gondii Ismail et al, 2012
  14. ALDOA aldolase A, fructose-bisphosphate: Aldolase interacts with T.Gondii MIC6 Zheng et al, 2009
  15. ALOX5 arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase: T Gondii infected mast cells degranulate and release Leukotriene B4 (blocked by ALOX5 inhibition) Henderson and Chi, 1998
  16. ALOX12 arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase: Regulation of IL12 via this pathway plays a role in resistance to toxoplasmosis Middleton et al, 2009
  17. ALOX15 arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase : Regulation of IL12 via this pathway plays a role in resistance to toxoplasmosis Middleton et al, 2009
  18. Arachidonic acid is secreted into the culture medium following infection in macrophages Thardin et al, 1993
  19. APAF1 apoptotic peptidase activating factor 1: binds to T.Gondi Tghps70 Hwang et al, 2010
  20. APOE Apolipoprotein E: apoE suppresses inflammation and modulates the T helper-1-type immune response Ali et al, 2005. T.Gondii increases atherosclerosis in APOE knockout mice Portugal et al, 2004
  21. APP amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein: infection inhibits ß-amyloid plaque formation in the cortex and hippocampus of Tg2576 mice Jung et al, 2012
  22. ARF6 ADP-ribosylation factor 6: recruited to the parasitophorous vacuole da Silva et al, 2009
  23. ARG1 arginase, liver : ROP16 triggers synthesis of host cell arginase-1 (STAT6-dependent) Butcher et al, 2011
  24. ARPC1A actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 1A, 41kDa T.Gondii induces the formation of a ring-shaped F-actin structure in the host cell at the parasite-cell junction:. The Arp2/3 complex, an actin-nucleating factor, is recruited at the ring structure and is important for parasite entry. Gonzalez et al, 2009
  25. ARPC1B actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 1B, 41kDa ""
  26. APRC2 actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 2, 34kDa ""
  27. ARPC3 actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 3, 21kDa ""
  28. ARPC4 actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 4, 20kDa ""
  29. ARPC5 actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5, 16kDa ""
  30. ARPC5L actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5-like ""
  31. ATF6B activating transcription factor 6 beta interacts with ROP18 Yamamoto et al, 2011
  32. ATG3 autophagy related 3: promotes binding of IRG and Gbp proteins to Chlamydia- and Toxoplasma-containing vacuoles Haldar et al, 2014
  33. ATG5 autophagy related 5 homolog required for in vivo resistance to the intracellular pathogens Listeria monocytogenes and Toxoplasma gondii. Zhao et al, 2008
  34. ATG7 mice with Atg7 deficiency targeted to microglia/macrophages as well as CD40(-/-) mice exhibited impaired killing of T. gondii and were susceptible to cerebral and ocular toxoplasmosis Portillo et al, 2010
  35. ATG12 autophagy related 12: autophagy proteins involved in the conjugation of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (MAP1LC3A) (aka LC3) to phosphatidylethanolamine, including Atg7, Atg3, and the Atg12-Atg5-Atg16L1 complex control T. gondii in vitro and in vivo Choi et al, 2014.
  36. ATG16L1 autophagy related 16-like 1 : See above Choi et al, 2014.
  37. ATP host cell ATP production affects T.Gondii tachzooite metabolism Sorensen et al, 1997
  38. ATP5A1 binds to T.Gondii GRA6 Ahn et al, 2006
  39. ATP5G1 binds to T.Gondii GRA8 Ahn et al, 2006
  40. B2M beta-2 microglobulin: Gene upregulated in the brains of mice after one year infection by T.Gondii Hermes et al, 2008
  41. BAD Bad, Bax and bid are selectively degraded by infection Carmen and Sinai, 2011
  42. BAT8 binds to T.Gondii GRA10 Ahn et al, 2006
  43. BAX BCL2-associated X protein Bad, Bax and bid are selectively degraded by infection Carmen and Sinai, 2011
  44. BBC3 BCL2 binding component 3 (Puma) : Expression decreased by astrocyte infection in mice Contreras-Ochoa et al, 2013
  45. BCHE butyrylcholinesterase: Reduced activity in serum and liver homogenates following infection in mice Da Silva et al, 2013
  46. BCL2A1 BCL2-related protein A1 Gene upregulated in the brains of mice after one year infection by T.Gondii Hermes et al, 2008
  47. BCL2 . T gondii infection inhibits mitochondrial apoptosis through overproduction of anti-apoptotic Bcl2 Hwang et al, 2010
  48. BCL2L11 BCL2-like 11 (apoptosis facilitator (Bim)): infection confers resistance against Bim-induced apoptosis by preventing the activation and mitochondrial targeting of pro-apoptotic Bax.Hippe et al, 2009
  49. BECN1 Beclin 1: Involved in the autophagy response to T.Gondii Wang et al, 2009
  50. BEX2 brain expressed X-linked 2: Expression increased in the spleen, liver, lung and small intestine of mice infected with T. gondii Ismail et al, 2012
  51. BID Bad, Bax and bid are selectively degraded by infection Carmen and Sinai, 2011
  52. BIRC3 baculoviral IAP repeat containing 3: Upregulated by infection in mouse embryonic fibroblasts Molestina et al, 2003
  53. BIRC5 baculoviral IAP repeat containing 5 (survivin): Expression decreased by astrocyte infection in mice Contreras-Ochoa et al, 2013
  54. BPI bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein : active in vitro and in vivo against T. gondii Khan et al, 1999
  55. BRD2 bromodomain containing 2 : (ring3) Expression increased in the liver of infected mice Lau et al, 2001
  56. BST2 bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2: Gene upregulated in the brains of mice after one year infection by T.Gondii Hermes et al, 2008
  57. Calcium channel modulators bepridil and verapamil, and the calmodulin antagonist, calmidazolium modify invasion Song et al, 2004 Ca-ionophore and thapsigargin which increase host cell cytosolic Ca2+, significantly decreased tachyzoite invasion Pezella et al, 1997
  58. C1QA complement component 1, q subcomponent, A chain: Gene upregulated in the brains of mice after one year infection by T.Gondii Hermes et al, 2008
  59. C1QC complement component 1, q subcomponent, C chain: Gene upregulated in the brains of mice after one year infection by T.Gondii Hermes et al, 2008
  60. C3 Complement component C3 binds to the parasite Fuhrman and Joiner , 1989 (See CR1)
  61. C4A complement component 4A (Rodgers blood group) : Gene upregulated in the brains of mice after one year infection by T.Gondii Hermes et al, 2008
  62. C4B complement component 4B (Chido blood group) : Gene upregulated in the brains of mice after one year infection by T.Gondii Hermes et al, 2008
  63. C5 complement component 5 Human sera genetically deficient in C5, C6, C7, and C8 were inactive as activators of antibody to T.Gondii.Schreiber and Feldman, 1980
  64. C6 complement component 6 See Schreiber and Feldman, 1980
  65. C6orf27 Gene upregulated in the brains of mice after one year infection by T.Gondii Hermes et al, 2008
  66. C7 complement component 7 See Schreiber and Feldman, 1980
  67. C8A complement component 8, alpha polypeptide See Schreiber and Feldman, 1980
  68. C8B complement component 8, beta polypeptide See Schreiber and Feldman, 1980
  69. Calcium: T.Gondii invasion is calcium dependent and inhibited by Ca2+ channel blockers (verapamil) and calmodulin (CALM1 CALM2 CALM3) antagonists (trifluoperazine, calmidazolium) and increased by Ca-ionophore and thapsigargin (sarco / endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase blocker) Pezzella et al, 1997.
  70. Calcineurin is :involved in T.Gondii egress (Isoforms include PPP3CA PPP3CB PPP3CC PPP3R1 PPP3R2) Moudy et al, 2001
  71. CAMLG binds to T.Gondii GRA3 Kim et al, 2008 and GRA5 and GRA6 Ahn et al, 2006
  72. CANX Calnexin T. gondii forms tight associations with host mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum and the parasitophorouis vacuole associates with calnexin Sinai et al, 1997
  73. CALR Calreticulin incorporated into parasitophorous vacuole containing-T. gondi Melo and de Souza, 1997
  74. CAPN1 Calpain: Immunodepletion or inhibition of calpain-1 in hypotonically lysed and resealed erythrocytes preventes the escape of P. falciparum and the egress of T.Gondii Chandramohanadas et al, 2009
  75. CAPN2 calpain 2, (m/II) large subunit: T. gondii egress from mammalian fibroblasts was blocked by either small interfering RNA-mediated suppression or genetic deletion of calpain activity Chandramohanadas et al, 2009
  76. CAPNS1 calpain, small subunit 1 See Chandramohanadas et al, 2009
  77. CASP3 caspase 3: molecules released by extracellular parasites inhibit cytochrome C mediated caspase activation Keller et al, 2006
  78. CASP7 caspase 7: molecules released by extracellular parasites inhibit cytochrome C mediated caspase activation Keller et al, 2006
  79. CASP8 caspase 8: T. gondii aberrantly processes and degrades caspase 8 Vutova et al, 2007
  80. CASP9 caspase 9: inhibited by infection Carmen et al, 2006
  81. CASP12 caspase 12: cleavage activated in trophoblasts following maternal infection Xu et al, 2012
  82. CAT Catalase: The H2O2 or superoxide generated by host catalase or superoxide dismutase are per se insufficient to kill T.Gondii, but provide the substrates necessary to generate the products (hydroxyl and other radicals) that are efficient microbicidals Murray and Cohn, 1979.
  83. CCDC56 coiled-coil domain containing 56: binds to T.Gondii GRA10 Ahn et al, 2006
  84. CCL1 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 1 (I-309) expression increased in T. gondii-infected macrophages via JAK3 and STAT6 Ahn et al, 2009
  85. CCL2 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (MCP-1) secretion stimulated by T.Gondii protein SAG1 Brenier-Pinchart et al, 2006 Upregulated in infected human Müller cells Knight et al, 2006
  86. CCL3 increased expression in CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, CXCL2, CXCL9 and CXCL10 in intestinal epithelial cells following peroral infection with T. gondii on day eight post-infection Gopal et al, 2011
  87. CCL4 T. gondii infection triggered neutrophil synthesis of CC chemokine ligand CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, and CCL20 Benouna et al, 2003
  88. CCL5 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 : (rantes) increased expression in CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, CXCL2, CXCL9 and CXCL10 in intestinal epithelial cells following peroral infection with T. gondii on day eight post-infection Gopal et al, 2011 Gene upregulated in the brains of mice after one year infection by T.Gondii Hermes et al, 2008
  89. CCL8 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 8 Gene upregulated in the brains of mice after one year infection by T.Gondii Hermes et al, 2008
  90. CCL11 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 11 (Eotaxin) Expreesion increased in host cells via IFNG Ahn et al, 2009
  91. CCNB1 Cyclin B1: T. gondii induces cell cycle arrest and cyclin B1 downregulation Brunet et al, 2008
  92. CCR1 Infection susceptibility increased in knockout mice Khan et al, 2001
  93. CCR2 Plays a key role in regulaing brain infection Benevides et al, 2008
  94. CCR3 Chemokine secretion induced by T.Gondii STAT6 activation may attract monocytes and Th2 cells of CCR3 and CCR4 lineage to enrich the Th2 environment near infected macrophages Ahn et al, 2009
  95. CCR4 See Ahn et al, 2009
  96. CCR5 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 binds to T.Gondii cyclophilin-18 (C-18) Yarovinsky et al, 2004 Ligands of this receptor include monocyte chemoattractant protein 2 (MCP-2), macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha), macrophage inflammatory protein 1 beta (MIP-1 beta) and regulated on activation normal T expressed and secreted protein (RANTES)
  97. CCR6 T.Gondii excreted secreted antigens induce a decrease in CCR6 expression associated with an increased expression of CCR7 in dendritic cells Diana et al, 2005
  98. CCR7 Peripheral amd central nervous system expression increased by infection Noor et al, 2010
  99. CCR9 ; Intracranial priming and rechallenging with Toxoplasma gondii in mice elicit neurotoxic CCR9+ Irg1+ (immunoresponsive gene 1) microglia Li et al, 2006
  100. CD1D Infection is exacerbated in CD1d-deficient mice Smiley et al, 2005
  101. CD2 T-cell surface antigen CD2: CD2 deficient mice are more resistant to T. gondii infection Pawlowski et al, 2007
  102. CD3 The lymphoproliferative response induced by cross-linked anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody is reduced in infected mice Hague et al, 1998
  103. CD4 down-regulated during the acute phase of infection Hague et al, 1998.
  104. CD8 T cells are essential for control of Toxoplasma gondii infection Gigley et al, 2011
  105. CD23 (FCER2 Fc fragment of IgE, low affinity II, receptor for (CD23) ) and IL10 involved in the immunoglobulin E related killing of T.Gondii Vouldoukis et al, 2011
  106. CD24 strongly induced on resident brain cells in infected mouse brains Deckert-Schlüter et al, 1999
  107. CD25 Anti-CD25 antibody-mediated depletion of effector T cell populations enhances susceptibility of mice to acute but not chronic Toxoplasma gondii infection Couper et al, 2009.
  108. CD28(-/-) mice are resistant to T. gondii Villegas et al, 2002
  109. CD36 expressioni decreased in the aorta of T.gondii infected mice fed a hypercholesterolemic diet Portugal et al, 2008 Gene upregulated in the brains of mice after one year infection by T.Gondii Hermes et al, 2008
  110. CD40 involved in vacuole-lysosome fusion Subauste et al, 2007
  111. CD40LG CD40 ligand (CD154): blockade of endogenous CD154 blockade increases parasite load in IFNG-/- mice infected with Toxoplasma gondii Subauste and Wessendarp, 2006
  112. CD44 CD44 molecule (Indian blood group) : infection in mice increases expression on T cells, B cells, natural killer cells, and macrophages Blass et al, 2001
  113. CD55 CD55 molecule, decay accelerating factor for complement (Cromer blood group) incorporated into the parasitophorous vacuole Mordue et al, 1999
  114. CD59 T.Gondii antigen S1 is an epitope of CD59 and antibodies to S1 cross react with CD59 Wilson et al, 1999
  115. CD80 infection of human monocytes with T. gondii tachyzoites rapidly induces expression of CD80 and up-regulates CD86 Subauste et al, 1998
  116. CD86 infection of human monocytes with T. gondii tachyzoites rapidly induces expression of CD80 and up-regulates CD86 Subauste et al, 1998
  117. CD154 CD40 ligand: CD40-CD154 interaction regulates Interferon -gamma-independent mechanisms of host protection viainduction of macrophage antimicrobial activity and modulation of TNF-alpha signaling Subauste and Wessendarp,2006
  118. CD200 regulates microglial responses in T.Gondii encephalitis in mice Deckert et al 2006
  119. CD200R1 CD200 receptor 1 regulates microglial responese in T.Gondii encephalitis in mice Deckert et al 2006
  120. CD274 (a.k.a. programmed cell death 1 ligand 1) Retinal cells from Toxoplasma-infected mice suppress T-cell activation via CD274 whose expression enables the retina to protect itself from CD4 T-cell-mediated immune damage in ocular toxoplasmosis Charles et al, 2010. active in vitro and in vivo against T. gondii Khan et al, 1999
  121. CDH15 cadherin 15, type 1, M-cadherin (myotubule) : Downregulated by infection in skeletal muscle Gomes et al, 2011
  122. CDH24 cadherin 24, type 2: binds to T.Gondii GRA8 Ahn et al, 2006
  123. CDKN1A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21, Cip1): CD40 upregulates Beclin 1 and triggered killing of T. gondii by decreasing CDKN1A protein levels CDKN1A stimulates Beclin 1 degradation Portillo et al, 2010
  124. CDKN1B cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (p27, Kip1): In Toxoplasm encephalitis in mice intracerebral T cells did not proliferate: related to the expression of the cell cycle inhibitors p21(Waf/cip1) and p27(Kip1) Schlüter et al, 2002
  125. CELA1 pancreatic; elastase-1: inhibited by a T.Gondii protease inhibitor (TgPI-1) Morris et al, 2002
  126. Ceramide ( and TNF) increase the number of T.Gondii cysts formed in vitro in human MRC5 fibroblasts: PKC is incolved as Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate
    also does so Ricard et al, 1996
  127. CFL1 Cofilin binds to T.Gondii GRA4 Ahn et al, 2006
  128. CHIA chitinase, acidic: Upregulated by infection in macrophages Nance et al, 2012
  129. CHI3L3 chitinase 3-like 3: Upregulated by infection in macrophages Nance et al, 2012
  130. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPG's) mediate cell attachment Carruthers et al, 2000
    1. Several CSPG's exist although none has been specifically related to T.Gondii: These include aggrecan ACAN ; Appican (a glial form of the amyloid precursor protein APP ) ; brevican BCAN ; chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans CSPG3 CSPG4 CSPG5 ; neurocan NCAN and versican VCAN
  131. CHUK conserved helix-loop-helix ubiquitous kinase (IKK alpha) localises to the parasitophorous vacuole membrane activating NFKB1 Molestina and Sinai, 2005
  132. CIITA class II, major histocompatibility complex, transactivator : Infection downreguletes CIITA in human glioblastoma cells Lüder et al, 2003
  133. CLDN3 claudin 3 Involved in the regulation of epithelial tight junctions that control T.Gondii infection Dalton et al, 2006
  134. CNTF ciliary neurotrophic factor, : IL6, IL-11, IL27, LIF, oncostatin M, CNTF, B cell stimulating factor, and cardiotrophin-1 (IL6+ST ligands) are upregulated in the astrocytes of mice in toxic encephalitis Drögemüller et al, 2008
  135. COASY binds to T.Gondii GRA1 Ahn et al, 2006
  136. COL2A1 Polymophisms influence congenital toxoplasmosis Jamieson et al, 2008
  137. CR1 complement component (3b/4b) receptor 1 (Knops blood group) involved in parasite ingestion by macrophages Tabor and Saluk 1983.
  138. CREB1 cAMP responsive element binding protein 1: binding to the TNF promoter in macrophages decreased by T. gondii infection Leng et al, 2009
  139. CRP C-reactive protein: Serum levels increased by infection Birgisdóttir et al, 2006
  140. CRSP2 binds to T.Gondii GRA1 Ahn et al, 2006
  141. CRTC2 CREB regulated transcription coactivator 2 regulates parasite-mediated host cell reorganization via MTOR , AKT1 and GSK3B Wang et al, 2010
  142. CSF1 colony stimulating factor 1 (macrophage): Secretion increated by infection of fibroblasts Channon et al, 2002
  143. CSF2 colony stimulating factor 2 (granulocyte-macrophage): Secretion increated by infection of fibroblasts Channon et al, 2002
  144. CTLA4 cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 : regulates immune responses to T.Gondii Hunter et al, 1997
  145. CTF1 cardiotrophin 1 Oncostatin M , IL6, IL-11, IL27, LIF, OSM , CNTF, B cell stimulating factor (IL4) , and cardiotrophin-1 (IL6+ST ligands) are upregulated in the astrocytes of mice in toxic encephalitis Drögemüller et al, 2008
  146. CTRC chymotrypsin C inhibited by a T.Gondii protease inhibitor (TgPI-1) Morris et al, 2002
  147. CTTN Cortactin binds to T.Gondii GRA4 Ahn et al, 2006
  148. CXCL2 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2: increased expression in CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, CXCL2, CXCL9 and CXCL10 in intestinal epithelial cells following peroral infection with T. gondii on day eight post-infection Gopal et al, 2011 Upregulated in infected human Müller cells Knight et al, 2006
  149. CXCL8 Upregulated in infected human Müller cells Knight et al, 2006
  150. CXCL9 increased expression in CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, CXCL2, CXCL9 and CXCL10 in intestinal epithelial cells following peroral infection with T. gondii on day eight post-infection Gopal et al, 2011
  151. CXCL10 increased expression in CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, CXCL2, CXCL9 and CXCL10 in intestinal epithelial cells following peroral infection with T. gondii on day eight post-infection Gopal et al, 2011
  152. CXCL11 the expreession of CXCL9/MIG, CXCL10/IP-10, CXCL11/I-TAC, CCL2/MCP-1, CCL3/MIP-1a, and CCL5/RANTES is increased in mice brains after infection Wen et al, 2010
  153. CXCR2 knockout increases susceptibility to infection in mice Del Rio et al, 2001
  154. CXCR3 chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 3: Microglial chemokine receptor upregulated in the brain following infection Nance et al, 2012
  155. CXCR4 chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4: Brain expression of CCL5/ RANTES, CCR7, CXCR4, and CXCR5 are upregulated, peaking 10 days after infection Aviles et al, 2008
  156. CXCR5 upregulated, peaking 10 days after infection Aviles et al, 2008
  157. CYBB cytochrome b-245, beta polypeptide: Gene upregulated in the brains of mice after one year infection by T.Gondii Hermes et al, 2008
  158. CYB5R3 cytochrome b5 reductase 3: binds to T.Gondii GRA8 Ahn et al, 2006
  159. Cyclic adenosine diphosphoribose regulates T.Gondii invasion : The parasite expresses the relevant enzymes and channels Chini et al, 2005 but host cADPR matabolism might be expected to influence the parasite
  160. Cyclic AMP stimulates T.Gondii growth and cAMP reduction reduces growth (effects produced by cAMP phosphodiesterase activators, imidazole and A23187, and cAMP phosphodiesterase inhibitors, IBMX , compound 48/80, and theophylline (non-selective)) Choi et al, 1990
  161. CYCS cytochrome c, somatic:T. gondii significantly inhibits the Fas/CD95-triggered release of cytochrome c into the host cell cytosol Hippe et al, 2008 .
  162. DDB1 damage-specific DNA binding protein 1, 127kDa: Interacts with the ROP18 kinase Cheng et al, 2012
  163. DDIT3 ( CHOP) DNA-damage-inducible transcript 3: Expression increased in trophoblasts following maternal infection Xu et al, 2012
  164. DEFA5 alpha defensin plays a parasiticidal role against Toxoplasma gondii Tanaka et al, 2010
  165. DEFB4A defensin, beta 4A: The parasites induces high levels of DEFB4A gene expression Morampudi et al, 2011
  166. Dehydroepiandrosterone decreases mortality in infected mice Khalifa et al, 2000
  167. DERL2 Der1-like domain family, member 2: Interacts with the ROP18 kinase Cheng et al, 2012
  168. Dextran sulphate inhibits infection of fibroblasts Ishiwa et al, 2013
  169. DGKZ Diacylglycerol kinase zeta regulates infection and host resistance Liu et al, 2007
  170. Diphosphatidylglycerol (Cardiolipin) : scavenged by tachyzoites Bizanz et al, 2006
  171. Dopamine: Cerebral metabolism increased by infection, due to tyrosine metabolism by the parasite's own tyrosine hydroxylase Prandovszky et al, 2011 (inevitably activating dopamine receptors DRD1 - DRD5)
  172. DRD4 dopamine receptor D4 : Expression increased in the frontal cortex of male infected mice Xiao et al, 2012
  173. DUSP4 – dual specificity phosphatase 4 (MAP kinase phosphatase 2): regulates T.Gondii infection by modulating NOS2 and arginase 1 activities in mice.Woods et al, 2013
  174. EGFR epidermal growth factor receptor: T. gondii micronemal proteins containing EGF domains promote EGFR activation Muniz-Feliciano et al, 2013 .
  175. EGR1 early growth response 1: : upregulated in response to infection Wiley et al, 2011
  176. EGR2 early growth response 2: Expression increased in the spleen, liver, lung and small intestine of mice infected with T. gondii Ismail et al, 2012
  177. EIF2A phosphorylated by Toxoplasma gondii initiation factor-2 kinase Sullivan et al, 2010
  178. EIF2AK2 eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha kinase 2 (PKR: double stranded RNA activated protein kinase) generally considered as important in viral defence but also stimulates autophagy, accumulation of the autophagy molecule LC3 around T.Gondii, vacuole-lysosomal fusion and killing of T. gondii in CD40-activated macrophages and microglia Ogolla et al, 2013
  179. EIF3S2 binds to T.Gondii GRA8 Ahn et al, 2006
  180. ELANE neutrophil elastase: inhibited by a T.Gondii protease inhibitor (TgPI-1) Morris et al, 2002
  181. ELN Elastin: increased elastin turnover and MMP12 in pregnant women with toxoplasmosisChou and Lai, 2011
  182. EMR1 egf-like module containing, mucin-like, hormone receptor-like 1: Gene upregulated in the brains of mice after one year infection by T.Gondii Hermes et al, 2008
  183. ERAP1 endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1: Processes T.Gondii antigen GRA10 Blanchard et al, 2008
  184. EYA1 eyes absent homolog 1: Expression decreased in the frontal cortex of female infected mice Xiao et al, 2012
  185. FABP7 fatty acid binding protein 7, brain: Expression decreased in the frontal cortex of female infected mice Xiao et al, 2012
  186. FADD: Fas (TNFRSF6)-associated via death domain: T-cell receptor-induced proliferation is blocked in FADD-defective T cells. FADD knockout mice succumb to Toxoplasma gondii infection more readily than wild-types Osborn et al, 2010
  187. FAS: Fas (TNF receptor superfamily, member 6): Infection with T. gondii infection reduces Fas-triggered apoptosis in HeLa cells by inhibiting the activities of initiator caspases 8 and 9 and effector caspase 3/7. Hippe et al, 2008
  188. FCER2 Fc fragment of IgE, low affinity II, receptor for (CD23) involved in immunoglobulin E mediated killing of the parasite in macrophages Vouldoukis et al, 2011
  189. FCGR1A Fc fragment of IgG, high affinity Ia, receptor (CD64) involved in parasite killing by monocytes Erbe et al, 1991
  190. FCFR2A Fc fragment of IgG, low affinity IIa, receptor (CD32) involved in parasite killing by monocytes Erbe et al, 1991
  191. FCGR2B Fc fragment of IgG, low affinity IIb, receptor (CD32) involved in parasite killing by monocytes Erbe et al, 1991
  192. FCGR3A Fc fragment of IgG, low affinity IIIa, receptor (CD16a) involved in parasite killing by large granular lymphocytes Erbe et al, 1991
  193. FCGR3B Fc fragment of IgG, low affinity IIIb, receptor (CD16b) involved in parasite killing by large granular lymphocytes Erbe et al, 1991
  194. FDFT1 farnesyl-diphosphate farnesyltransferase 1: catalyzes the dimerization of two molecules of farnesyl diphosphate in a two-step reaction to form squalene: Squalene synthase inhibition by squalestatin arrests T.Gondii growth Nishikawa et al, 2011
  195. FLNB filamin B, beta binds to T.Gondii GRA9 Ahn et al, 2006
  196. FMO2 flavin containing monooxygenase 2 (non-functional): Expression increased in trophoblasts following maternal infection Xu et al, 2012
  197. FN1 Fibronectin 1: involved in the entrance, migration and retention of inflammatory cells into the CNS during parasitic infections Silva et al, 1999.
  198. FUNDC1 FUN14 domain containing 1: binds to T.Gondii GRA3 Ahn et al, 2006
  199. FYB FYN binding protein: Gene upregulated in the brains of mice after one year infection by T.Gondii Hermes et al, 2008
  200. Galactose: TgMIC4 binds to to a variety of galactose-containing carbohydrate ligands Marchant et al, 2012.
  201. GABA- Gamma- amino butyric acid: Dendritic cells secrete GABA following infection and GABRA3, GABRB3 and |GABRP subunits of the GABA-A receptor are upregulated in these cells: Inhibition of GABA synthesis in dendritic cells reduces entry of the parasite to other organs, inluding the brain Fuks et al, 2012.
  202. G6PC glucose-6-phosphatase, catalytic subunit: an endoplasmic reticulum marker that localises to the parasitophorous vacuole Goldszmid et al, 2009
  203. GBP proteins: Interferon-gamma-Inducible p65 GTPases involved in host defense against Toxoplasma gondii Yamamoto et al, 2012.
  204. GBP1 guanylate binding protein 1, interferon-inducible: localises to the parasitophorous vacuole Virreira Winter et al, 2011
  205. GBP2 guanylate binding protein 2, interferon-inducible: localises to the parasitophorous vacuole Virreira Winter et al, 2011 Gene upregulated in the brains of mice after one year infection by T.Gondii Hermes et al, 2008
  206. GBP4 guanylate binding protein 4 ; Gene upregulated in the brains of mice after one year infection by T.Gondii Hermes et al, 2008
  207. GBP5: guanylate binding protein 5: localises to the parasitophorous vacuole Virreira Winter et al, 2011
  208. GBP6 guanylate binding protein family, member 6 : Gene upregulated in the brains of mice after one year infection by T.Gondii Hermes et al, 2008
  209. GFAP intermediate filaments in astrocytes, and GFAP, associate with T.Gondii cysts Halonen et al, 1998 Gene upregulated in the brains of mice after one year infection by T.Gondii Hermes et al, 2008
  210. Glutamine is scavenged from the host cell by the parasite when glucose concentrations are low Blume et al, 2009 Host glutamine is synthesised by glutamine synthetase (GLUL) and metabolised by glutaminase (GLS1 GLS2) and is a precursor for neurotransmitter glutamate.
  211. GJA1 gap junction protein, alpha 1, 43kDa (connexin 43) : Expression reduced in infected astrocytes Campos de Carvalho et al, 1998
  212. GJB2 gap junction protein, beta 2, 26kDa (connexin 26): Expression reduced in infected leptomeningeal cells Campos de Carvalho et al, 1998
  213. Glucosamine binds to T.Gondii protein SAG1 Robinson et al, 2004
  214. Glutathione: glutathione which does not readily enter cells was without effect but its precursors N-acetylcysteine or Glutathione-monoethyl ester cause parasite egress in human fibroblasts Stommel et al, 2001
  215. GPX1 glutathione peroxidase 1: Expression increased in trophoblasts following maternal infection Xu et al, 2012
  216. GPX6 glutathione peroxidase 6 (olfactory): Expression increased in trophoblasts following maternal infection Xu et al, 2012
  217. GZMB Granzyme B inhibited by T.Gondii Yamada et al, 2011
  218. HAVCR1 hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 1 (Tim-1) : brain and spleen expression modified by infection in mice Wu et al, 2013
  219. HAVCR2 hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 2: (Tim-3) : brain and spleen expression modified by infection in mice Wu et al, 2013
  220. HBQ1 hemoglobin, theta 1: Expression increased in placental trophoblasts following maternal infection Xu et al, 2012
  221. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans mediate attachment of T.Gondii Jacquet et al, 2001
    1. There are many heparan sulfate proteoglycans, although none have ben specifically assessed in relation to T.Gondii binding eg agrin AGRN basigin BGN glypicans GPC1 GPC2 GPC3 GPC4 GPC5, perlecan HSPG2 and syndecans SDC1 SDC2 SDC3 SDC4
    2. T. gondii secretory proteins bind to sulfated heparin structures Azzouz et al, 2012.
  222. Heparin binds to MIC2 Harper et al, 2004
  223. HIF1A hypoxia inducible factor 1, alpha subunit (basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor): Toxoplasma infection increases HIF-1alpha stability by preventing HIF-1alpha prolyl hydroxylation Wiley et al, 2010
  224. HLA-A*0201 binds to T.Gondii GRA4 Ahn et al, 2006
  225. HLA-G major histocompatibility complex, class I, G involved in the congenital transmission of T.Gondii Robert-Gangneux et al, 2011.
  226. HMGB1 high mobility group box 1: localises to parasitophorous vacuole in infected endothelial cells Stumbo et al, 2008
  227. HMGCR 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase: inhibitors suppress T.Gondii growth which is dependent on host-scavenged cholesterol Nishikawa et al, 2011
  228. HNRNPK heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K binds to T.Gondii GRA7 Ahn et al, 2006
  229. HSPA5 heat shock 70kDa protein 5 (glucose-regulated protein, 78kDa) : Expresssion increased in trophoblasts following maternal infection Xu et al, 2012
  230. HSPA8 heat shock 70kDa protein 8: binds to parasite protein TgMCP4a Gong et al, 2013.
  231. HSPD1 (hsp65) heat shock 60kDa protein 1 (chaperonin): Contributes to host defence and prevents macrophage apoptosis Hisaeda et al, 1997
  232. HSP90B1 heat shock protein 90kDa beta (Grp94), member 1: Expresssion increased in trophoblasts following maternal infection Xu et al, 2012
  233. HSD17B10: hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 10 (HADH2): binds to T.Gondii GRA8 Ahn et al, 2006
  234. 1-, 12-, and 15-hydroxyicosatetraenoic acids formed after infection in macrophages Locksley et al, 1985
  235. 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid synthesis is increased by infection in macrophages Thardin et al, 1993
  236. 9-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid platelet release stimulated by T.Gondii Henderson et al, 1992
  237. 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid platelet release stimulated by T.Gondii Henderson et al, 1992
  238. ICAM1 intercellular adhesion molecule 1 interacts with the parasite adhesin MIC2 Barragan et al, 2005
  239. ICOS ICOS expression positively correlates with IFN-gamma production in T helper cells from gut or liver of T.Gondii infected mice Bonhagen et al, 2003
  240. IDO1 indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1: IFNG stimulated IDO activity in human astrocytes inhibits the growth of Toxoplasma gondii Oberdörfer et al, 2003 GCHI (GTP Cyclohydrolase) activity correlates with IDO induction Taylor and Feng, 1991.
  241. IFIT3 interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 3 :Gene upregulated in the brains of mice after one year infection by T.Gondii Hermes et al, 2008
  242. IFNG Interferon gamma: IFNG stimulated IDO activity in human astrocytes inhibits the growth of Toxoplasma gondii Oberdörfer et al, 2003
  243. IFNGR1 interferon gamma receptor 1: and IFNGR2 plays a key role in macrophage activation in response to T.Gondii and other parasites Lykens et al, 2010
  244. IFNGR2 interferon gamma receptor 2 (interferon gamma transducer 1) : Lykens et al, 2010
  245. IGES immunoglobulin E mediates killing of the parasite in macrophages Vouldoukis et al, 2011
  246. IGTP interferon gamma induced GTPase: Plays a role in resistance to T.Gondii Taylor et al, 2000
  247. IL1A increase in the number of tachyzoites in infected astrocytoma cells Pelloux et al, 1996
  248. IL1B Expression markedly increased by infection of human retinal pigment epithelial cells Nagineni et al, 2000
  249. IL1R1 – interleukin 1 receptor, type I : Blockade of IL1R1 signaling reduces Paneth cell depletion and T.gondii induced ileitis in mice Villeret et al, 2013.
  250. IL1RL1 (IL33 receptor): IL33 receptor signalling prevents development of encephalitis in infected mice .Jones et al, 2010
  251. IL2 Interleukin2 defeicient mice are more susceptible to infection Villegas et al, 2002
  252. IL2RA Antibodies to IL2RA (CD25) enhance susceptibility to acute but not chronic infection Couper et al, 2009
  253. IL2RB interleukin 2 receptor, beta chain : Mice treated with anti-IL-2R beta antibody are resistant to infection Nakano et al, 2001
  254. IL3 Interleukin 3: TNF-alpha and prolactin increase the expression of ICAM-1 and the production of endogenous IL-6 and IL-3 by microglia: Related to potential anti-parasitic functions against T. gondii infection in the brain. Benedetto et al, 2001
  255. IL3RA interleukin 3 receptor, alpha (low affinity): Delayed apoptosis induced by tachzoites in fibroblasts correlates with up-regulation of the neutrophil antiapoptotic protein, Mcl-1, and neutrophil IL3RA Channon et al, 2002
  256. IL4 Interleukin 4: Splenic secretion increased by the T.Gondii hsp70 protein Ahmed et al, 2004 Secretion increased in infected human Müller cells Knight et al, 2006
  257. IL4R interleukin 4 receptor: T.Gondii infection in macrophages increases the expression of IL-4R, CD40, and CD23 via STAT6 Ahn et al, 2009
  258. IL5 has deleterious effects on pathology following oral infection Nickdel et al, 2001
  259. IL6: Interleukin 6: IL-6 promotes natural killer cell production of IL17 during toxoplasmosis.Passos et al, 2010 Upregulated in infected human Müller cells Knight et al, 2006
  260. IL6ST interleukin 6 signal transducer (gp130, oncostatin M receptor): involved in the astrocytic control; of T.Gondii Drögemüller et al, 2009
  261. IL7 interleukin 7: Knockdown impairs CD8 T cell responses against T. gondii.Bhadra et al, 2010
  262. IL8 interleukin 8: human intestinal epithelial cells infected with T. gondii elicit show increased IL8 secretion related to rapid MAPK phosphorylation and NF-kappaB nuclear translocation Ju et al, 2009
  263. IL10 Interleukin 10: regulates T.Gondii hypersensitivity responses (Receptors - IL10RA, IL10RB dimers ) Gaddi and Yap, 2007
  264. IL11 Interleukin 11: IL6, IL-11, IL27, LIF, oncostatin M, ciliary neurotrophic factor, B cell stimulating factor, and cardiotrophin-1 (IL6+ST ligands) are upregulated in the astrocytes of mice in toxic encephalitis Drögemüller et al, 2008
  265. IL12A Interleukin 12: Parasite generated lipoxin A4 reduces IL12 secretion from dendritic cells Bannenberg et al, 2004
  266. IL12B interleukin 12B (natural killer cell stimulatory factor 2, cytotoxic lymphocyte maturation factor 2, p40): parasite-induced Stat3 activation enhances production of interleukin IL6 and IL12B Yamamoto et al, 2009
  267. IL13 Interleukin 13 enhances the anti-parasitic activity of LPS-activated murine macrophages Authier et al, 2008
  268. IL15 see below:
  269. IL15RA interleukin 15 receptor, alpha : treatment with soluble IL15RA (to block the effects of IL15) reduces the ability of mice to control a lethal infection Khan et al, 2002
  270. IL17A Interleukin 17: oral T. gondii infection increases IL17 expression and contributes to the inflammatory response, and IL-17 neutralization has a partial protective effect against fatal T. gondii-associated inflammation .Guiton et al, 2010
  271. IL17RA interleukin 17 receptor A important for an optimal polymorphonuclear response against Toxoplasma gondii infection in mice Kelly et al, 2005.
  272. IL18 interleukin 18 (interferon-gamma-inducing factor): upregulated by infection in monocytes Witola et al, 2011
  273. IL18R1 interleukin 18 receptor 1: knockout modifies infection in mice LaRosa et al, 2008
  274. IL19 interleukin 19 : Expression increased in trophoblasts following maternal infection Xu et al, 2012
  275. IL21 – interleukin 21: Needed for an optimal antibody response to T.Gondii infection Stumhofer et al, 2013
  276. IL22 interleukin 22 Anti-IL-22 Ab-treated mice developed significantly less intestinal pathology after oral, but not intravenous or intraperitonel infection Wilson et al, 2010
  277. IL23 mediates Toxoplasma gondii-induced immunopathology in the gut via matrixmetalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) and IL22 Muñoz et al, 2009
  278. IL27 : IL11Interleukin 11: IL6, IL-11, IL27, LIF, oncostatin M, ciliary neurotrophic factor, B cell stimulating factor, and cardiotrophin-1 (IL6+ST ligands) are upregulated in the astrocytes of mice in toxic encephalitis Drögemüller et al, 2008
  279. IL33 Interleukin 33 : IL33 receptor signalling prevents development of encephalitis in infected mice .Jones et al, 2010
  280. INS Insulin stimulates T.gondi replication in 3T3-L1 cells Zhu et al, 2006.
  281. IRAK4 interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4: TLR2, MyD88, and IRAK4 mediate TgHSP70 signalling Bela et al, 2012
  282. IRF1 interferon regulatory factor 1: involved in the in induction of the Trypotophan -Kynurenate metabolic pathway during acute infection (see IDO1) Silva et al, 2002
  283. IRF8 interferon regulatory factor 8: modified infection Jost et al, 2007
  284. IRG1 immunoresponsive 1 homolog (mouse):Intracranial priming and rechallenging with Toxoplasma gondii in mice elicit neurotoxic CCR9+ Irg1+ (immunoresponsive gene 1) microglia Li et al, 2006
  285. IRGC immunity-related GTPase family, cinema: induces disruption of the parasitophorous vacuole in macrophages: Steinfeldt et al, 2010
  286. IRGM immunity-related GTPase family, M (LRG-47) : Regulates T.Gondii pathogenicity Collazo et al, 2001
  287. ITGA4 integrin, alpha 4 (antigen CD49D, alpha 4 subunit of VLA-4 receptor): Downregulated in macrophages post infection Da Gama et al, 2004
  288. ITGA5 integrin, alpha 5 (fibronectin receptor, alpha polypeptide) : Processing in macrophages increased by infection Seipel et al, 2010
  289. ITGA6 integrin, alpha 6 integrin, beta 1 (fibronectin receptor, beta polypeptide, antigen CD29 includes MDF2, MSK12) : A T.Gondii laminin mediates binding to ITGA6/ ITGB1 Furtado et al, 1992
  290. ITGAL integrin, alpha L (antigen CD11A (p180), lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1; alpha polypeptide) Downregulated in macrophages post infection Da Gama et al, 2004
  291. ITGAM integrin, alpha M (complement component 3 receptor 3 subunit) Confers resistanc to infection in mice Johnson et al, 1996
  292. ITGB1 involved in T.Gondii cellular attachment Joiner 1991
  293. ITGB2 integrin, beta 2 (complement component 3 receptor 3 and 4 subunit ) Confers resistanc to infection in mice Johnson et al, 1996
  294. ITGB3 Processing in macrohages increased by infection Seipel et al, 2010
  295. JAK1 Janus kinase 1: IFNG does not induce INDO1 or antimicrobial activity in JAK1 knockouts Cerávolo et al, 1999
  296. JAK2 Janus kinase 2: IFNG does not induce INDO1 or antimicrobial activity in JAK2 knockouts Cerávolo et al, 1999
  297. JAK3 SERPINB3, B4, and B13 and SPINT2 expression is increased by infection in macrophages via JAK3 and STAT6 Ahn et al, 2009
  298. JUN jun proto-oncogene: infection induces rapidly activates of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK14), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2,(MAPK3/MAPK1) and stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JUN), followed by their deactivation in mouse macrophages Kim et al, 2004
  299. JUNB jun B proto-oncogene upregulated via serum response factor in infected cells Wiley et al, 2011
  300. Kynurenic acid: levels increased by infection (see IDO1) Silva et al, 2002
  301. Kynurenine levels increased and tryptophan levels decreased in lungs, brain, and serum from mice infected with T. gondii Silva et al, 2002
  302. Lactate inhibits bradyzoite formation in permissive cells Weilhammer et al, 2012
  303. Lactose The parasit protein MIC1 is a lactose binding lectin that recognises ß-galactoside Lourenço et al, 2001
  304. LAG3 lymphocyte-activation gene 3 : Gene upregulated in the brains of mice after one year infection by T.Gondii Hermes et al, 2008
  305. LAMB3 binds to T.Gondii GRA1 Ahn et al, 2006
  306. Laminin receptors on host cells bind to laminin on the parasite surface Joiner 1991
  307. LAMP1 lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1: CD40 stimulation increases T.Gondii killing in various cell lines; increases expression of autophagy proteins Beclin 1 and LC3 II, enhanced autophagy flux and leads to recruitment of MAP1LC3A and LAMP1 around the parasite Van Grol et al, 2013
  308. LDLR Intracellular replication of Toxoplasma gondii requires cholesterol uptake by LDLR Portugal et al, 2008
  309. Leukotriene B4: mast cells degranulate and release LTB4 when incubated with T.Gondii: This damages the tachyzoites Henderson and Chi, 1998
  310. Leukotriene C4 synthesis is increased by infection in macrophages Thardin et al, 1993
  311. Leukotriene D4 synthesis is increased by infection in macrophages Thardin et al, 1993
  312. LGALS3 lectin, galactoside-binding, soluble, 3 : (galectin 3) binds to Toxoplasma gondii glycosylphosphatidylinositols Debierre-Grockiego et al, 2010
  313. LGALS3BP lectin, galactoside-binding, soluble, 3 binding protein: Gene upregulated in the brains of mice after one year infection by T.Gondii Hermes et al, 2008
  314. LIF leukemia inhibitory factor: IL11Interleukin 11: IL6, IL-11, IL27, LIF, oncostatin M, ciliary neurotrophic factor, B cell stimulating factor, and cardiotrophin-1 (IL6+ST ligands) are upregulated in the astrocytes of mice in toxic encephalitis Drögemüller et al, 2008
  315. LIGP1 (mouse) interferon inducible GTPase 1 phosphorylated by T.Gondii ROP18 Steinfeldt et al 2010
  316. LPL Lipoprotein lipase: Muscle LPL activity is markedly reduced in T. gondii-infected mice Picard et al, 2002
  317. LPO lactoperoxidase : Expression increased in trophoblasts following maternal infection Xu et al, 2012
  318. LTA lymphotoxin alpha (TNF superfamily, member 1): Controls CNS T.Gondii infection Schlüter et al, 2003
  319. LTK leukocyte receptor tyrosine kinase: Combined LTK TXK deletion modifies adaptive immune responses to Toxoplasma gondii in vivo Schaeffer et al, 1999
  320. LTB4R2 leukotriene B4 receptor 2: binds to T.Gondii GRA1 Ahn et al, 2006
  321. LTF lactotransferrin binds to T.Gondii Dziadek et al, 2005
  322. LTK leukocyte receptor tyrosine kinase: Combined deletion in mice of LTK and TXK , causes defects in TCR responses and adaptive immune responses to Toxoplasma gondii in vivo Schaeffer et al, 1999
  323. LY96 lymphocyte antigen 96: Responds to lipopolysaccharide and activates TLR4 Miller et al, 2005
  324. MAFB v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog B (avian) : Gene upregulated in the brains of mice after one year infection by T.Gondii Hermes et al, 2008
  325. Malondialdehyde: Levels increased in trophoblasts following maternal infection Xu et al, 2012
  326. MAP2K3 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3 ( MAPKK3, MEK3, MKK3, PRKMK3) : involved in T.Gondii stimulated IL12 production in macrophages Kim et al, 2005
  327. MAP1LC3A microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 alpha: CD40 stimulation increases T.Gondii killing in various cell lines; increases expression of autophagy proteins Beclin 1 and LC3 II, enhanced autophagy flux and leads to recruitment of MAP1LC3A and LAMP1 around the parasite Van Grol et al, 2013
  328. MAP2K4 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (JNKK, JNKK1, MAPKK4, MEK4, MKK4, PRKMK4, SEK1, SERK1) Activated by the parasite in macrophages Kim et al, 2006
  329. MAP3K5 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 5: activated in trophoblasts following maternal infection Xu et al, 2012
  330. MAP3K7 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 7: involved in T.Gondii stimulated IL12 production in macrophages Kim et al, 2005
  331. MAP3K8 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 8: regulates host resistance Watford et al, 2008
  332. MAPK1: infection induces rapidly activates of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK14), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2,(MAPK3/MAPK1) and stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JUN) , followed by their deactivation in mouse macrophages Kim et al, 2004
  333. MAPK3 infection induces rapidly activates of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK14), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2,(MAPK3/MAPK1) and stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JUN) MAPK, followed by their deactivation in mouse macrophages Kim et al, 2004
  334. MAPK9 mitogen-activated protein kinase 9 (jnk2): Knockout enhances resistance to T.Gondii Sukhumavasi et al, 2010
  335. MAPK14 mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 (p38): infection induces rapidly activates of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK14), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2,(MAPK3/MAPK1) and stress-activated protein ktf4inase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JUN) MAPK, followed promptly by their deactivation in mouse macrophages Kim et al, 2004
  336. MB myoglobin: Expression increased in trophoblasts following maternal infection Xu et al, 2012
  337. MCL1 myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 (BCL2-related): Delayed apoptosis induced by tachzoites in fibroblasts correlates with up-regulation of the neutrophil antiapoptotic protein, Mcl-1, and neutrophil IL3RA Channon et al, 2002
  338. Melatonin and/or Zn supplementation may activate cellular immunity by stimulating CD4+ and CD8+ production in T.Gondii infected rats Baltaci et al, 2003
  339. Microfilaments become agglutinated upon infection and treatment of cells with cytoskeleton inhibitors (colchicines, cytochalasin-D) resulted in reduced cell infection ratios Li et al, 2008
  340. MIF macrophage migration inhibitory factor (also functions as L-dopachrome isomerase (equivalent to EC 5.3.3.12 )) mediates resistance against infection Flores et al, 2010
    1. The parasite also posesses it's own MIF with tautomerase activity (catecholamine metabolism to quinones ) Sommerville et al, 2013
  341. miR-106b approximately 25: microRNA upregulated by infection Zeiner et al, 2010
  342. miR-17 approximately 92: microRNA upregulated by infection Zeiner et al, 2010
  343. MIR17HG miR-17-92 cluster host gene (non-protein coding): expression increased and Bim expression decreased in TgCtwh3-strain-infected macrophages Cai et al, 2014.
  344. miR-146a and miR-155 coinduced in the brains of mice challenged with Toxoplasma strain II Cannella et al, 2014
  345. MMP2 matrix metallopeptidase 2 (gelatinase A, 72kDa gelatinase, 72kDa type IV collagenase): MMP2 and MMP9 upregulated by astroglial infection Lu and Lai, 2013
  346. MMP8 matrix metallopeptidase 8 (neutrophil collagenase) : expression increased in infiltrating lymphocytes in infected brains Clark et al, 2011
  347. MMP9 matrix metallopeptidase 9 (gelatinase B, 92kDa gelatinase, 92kDa type IV collagenase): secretion by macrophages upregulated by infection Seipel et al, 2010
  348. MMP10 matrix metallopeptidase 10 (stromelysin 2): expression increased in infiltrating lymphocytes in infected brains Clark et al, 2011
  349. MMP12 matrix metallopeptidase 12 (macrophage elastase): Serum levels increased in pregnant women with toxoplasmosis, contribution to increased elastin turnover Chou and Lai, 2011
  350. MMP14 upregulated by T.Gondii in macrophages and possibly involved in the processing of pro-alpha v and pro-beta 3 to generate functional mature integrin alpha v beta 3 molecules ITGA5, ITGB3 Seipel et al, 2010
  351. MRFAP1 Morf4 family associated protein 1 binds to T.Gondii GRA1 Ahn et al, 2006
  352. MT2A metallothionein 2A binds to T.Gondii GRA9 Ahn et al, 2006
  353. MYC v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog: Toxoplasma tachyzoites mediate rapid and sustained induction of MYC Franco et al, 2014
  354. MYD88 myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88) plays an important Toll receptor related role in pathogen defence Denkers, 2010
  355. N-acetylneuraminic acid : The parasite contains lectin mimcs that bind to N-acetylneuraminic acid Friedrich et al, 2010
  356. N-Formylkynurenine : Suppresses T.Gondii growth but at high concentrations Pfefferkorn et al, 1986
  357. NAIP NLR family, apoptosis inhibitory protein: Upregulated by infection in mouse embryonic fibroblasts Molestina et al, 2003
  358. NAPRT1 nicotinate phosphoribosyltransferase domain containing 1: binds to T.Gondii GRA4 Ahn et al, 2006
  359. ND4 NADH dehydrogenase, subunit 4 (complex I): binds to T.Gondii GRA10 Ahn et al, 2006
  360. NDST1 N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase (heparan glucosaminyl) 1: Cell surface heparan sulphate promotes T.Gondii replication and infectivity is reduced in cells lacking NDST1 Bishop et al, 2005
  361. NFATC1: nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 1: T.Gondii modifies nuclear translocation Hague et al, 1998
  362. NFKB1 nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 1, p105: IKK alpha localises to the parasitophorous vacuole membrane activating NFKB1 Molestina and Sinai, 2005
  363. NFKB2 regulates apoptosis and T cell related immunity to T.Gondii Caamaño et al, 2000
  364. NFKBIA nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha: Mice transfected with an NFKBIA mutant that resists degradation show an increased parasitic burden and succumb rapidy to infection Tato et al, 2003
  365. Nitric oxide
  366. NIT2 nitrilase family, member 2: binds to T.Gondii GRA8 Ahn et al, 2006
  367. NLRP1 NLR family, pyrin domain containing 1: silencing attenuates progression of T. gondii infection Witola et al, 2011 NLRP1 modifies susceptibility to congenital toxoplasmosis Witola et al, 2011
  368. NLRP3 NLR family, pyrin domain containing 3: T.Gondii activates NLRP1 and NLRP3 inflammasome Gorfu et al, 2014
  369. NOD2 nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2 critical for host defense against T. gondii.Shaw et al, 2009
  370. NOS1 Exogenous nitric oxide induces apoptosis in T.Gondii tachyzooites Peng et al, 2003
  371. NOS2 nitric oxide synthase 2, inducible: CNS inflammation to T.Gondii increased in knockout mice Silva et al, 2009
  372. NOX1 NADPH oxidase 1: Expression increased in trophoblasts following maternal infection Xu et al, 2012
  373. NOX4 – NADPH oxidase 4 : expression reduced by infection in retinal pigment epithelium cell line ARPE-19 Zhou et al, 2013
  374. NQO2 NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, quinone 2 : binds to T.Gondii GRA1 Ahn et al, 2006
  375. NR3C1 – nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1 (glucocorticoid receptor): knockout mice more rapidly succumb to infection despite displaying parasite burdens indistinguishable from control animals Kugler et al, 2013
  376. NT5E 5'-nucleotidase, ecto (CD73): Adenosine generated by this enzyme favours T.gondii differentiation to long-lived tissue cysts in the central nervous system Mahamed et al, 2012.
  377. NUBP2 nucleotide binding protein 2 binds to T.Gondii GRA8 Ahn et al, 2006
  378. OCIAD1 OCIA domain containing 1: Interacts with the ROP18 kinase Cheng et al, 2012
  379. OCLN Occludin : Alterations in epithelial permeability following infection correlated with Tight junction structure and occludin phosphorylation
  380. OLR1 Gene upregulated in the brains of mice after one year infection by T.Gondii Hermes et al, 2008
  381. OSM Oncostatin M , IL6, IL-11, IL27, LIF, OSM , CNTF, B cell stimulating factor (IL4) , and cardiotrophin-1 (IL6+ST ligands) are upregulated in the astrocytes of mice in toxic encephalitis Drögemüller et al, 2008
  382. P2RX7 purinergic receptor P2X, ligand-gated ion channel, 7: mediates T.Gondii killing by macrophages Lees et al, 2010
  383. PAF Platelet activating factor (1-0-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine): activated by T.Gondii hsp70 via TLR4/MYD88 pathway Fang et al, 2008
  384. PAFAH1B1 platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase 1b, regulatory subunit 1 (45kDa): Upregulated by infection. Fang et al, 2008
  385. PARP1 transiently decreased in host cells within 10 minutes after infection Gais et al, 2008
  386. PAX6 paired box 6: binds to T.Gondii GRA3 Ahn et al, 2006
  387. PARP14 poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase family, member 14: Gene upregulated in the brains of mice after one year infection by T.Gondii Hermes et al, 2008
  388. PCBP1 poly(rC) binding protein 1: binds to T.Gondii GRA7 Ahn et al, 2006
  389. PCBP2 poly(rC) binding protein 2: binds to T.Gondii GRA10 Ahn et al, 2006
  390. PDCD1 programmed cell death 1 : T. gondii differentiation and reactivation are mediated by systemic CD8 T-cell dysfunction during chronic infection characterized by increased expression of inhibitory receptor PDCD1 Bhadra et al, 2011
  391. PDGFA platelet-derived growth factor alpha polypeptide: inhibits intracellular growth in a virulent T. gondii strain Chumpitazi et al, 1998
  392. PDGFB platelet-derived growth factor beta polypeptide: inhibits intracellular growth in a virulent T. gondii strain Chumpitazi et al, 1998
  393. PDK1 pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 1 Activatd by PIP3 following PI3K activation See Kegg pathway
  394. Phosphatidylcholine: scavenged by tachyzoites Bizanz et al, 2006
  395. Phosphatidylethanolamine: scavenged by tachyzoites Bizanz et al, 2006
  396. Phosphatidylinositol: scavenged by tachyzoites Bizanz et al, 2006
  397. Phosphatidylserine: scavenged by tachyzoites Bizanz et al, 2006
  398. PHGDH phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase: binds to T.Gondii GRA8 Ahn et al, 2006
  399. PILRB paired immunoglobin-like type 2 receptor beta: Regulates inflammatory responses to T.Gondii Tato et al, 2012
  400. PIK3CA phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, catalytic, alpha polypeptide activated by infection in macrophages Lee et al, 2007
  401. PIK3CB phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, catalytic, beta polypeptide activated by infection in macrophages Lee et al, 2007
  402. PIK3CG phosphoinositide-3-kinase, catalytic, gamma polypeptide activated by infection in macrophages Lee et al, 2007
  403. PIK3C3 phosphoinositide-3-kinase, class 3 : knockdown of PIK3C3 inhibits anti–T. gondii activity induced by CD40 stimulation Rosa et al, 2006
  404. PKM2 pyruvate kinase, muscle
  405. Cofilin binds to T.Gondii GRA4 and GRA8 Ahn et al, 2006
  406. PLAU plasminogen activator, urokinase: Expression increased in the spleen, liver, lung and small intestine of mice infected with T. gondii Ismail et al, 2012
  407. PLAUR plasminogen activator, urokinase receptor Part of a multiprotein conplex (MMP9, CD44 TIMP1 and PLAUR )secreted by infected macrophages Schuindt et al, 2011
  408. PLA2G4A phospholipase A2, group IVA (cytosolic, calcium-dependent): activated by T.Gondii hsp70 via TLR4/MYD88 pathway Fang et al, 2008
  409. PLCG1 involved in the activation of CCL2 scertion induced by infection of astrocytoma cells Durand et al, 2004
  410. PMAIP1 phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced protein 1 (Noxa) : Expression increased by astrocyte infection in mice Contreras-Ochoa et al, 2013
  411. POP7 binds to T.Gondii GRA9 Ahn et al, 2006
  412. Potassium : reduced cytoplasmic potassium levels following host cell breakdown triggers Toxoplasma gondii egress Moudy et al, 2001
  413. PPIF peptidylprolyl isomerase F: (Cyclophilin-18) A T.Gondii protein mimic that activates CCR5 Aliberti et al, 2003
  414. PPP1R2 protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 2 phosphorylated by T.Gondii TPK3, a glycogen synthase kinase mimic Qin et al, 1998
  415. PPP2CA protein phosphatase 2, catalytic subunit, alpha isozyme: binds to dense granule protein GRA16 Bougdour et al, 2013
  416. PRF1 Perforin 1 (pore forming protein): Triggers T.Gondii egress. Persson et al, 2007
  417. PRKCA Protein kinase C alpha : T. gondii acutely activates PKCalpha and PKCbeta, which are required for infection-induced MAPK activation and IL12 production Masek et al, 2006.
  418. PRKCB Protein kinase C beta ""
  419. PRL Prolactin induced T'Gondii killing in murine microglia Benedetto et al, 2001
  420. Prostaglandin E2 synthesis is increased by infection in macrophages Peng et al, 2008
  421. 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha synthesis is increased by infection in macrophages Thardin et al, 1993
  422. PRSS1 trypsin: inhibited by a T.Gondii protease inhibitor (TgPI-1) Morris et al, 2002
  423. PSENEN binds to T.Gondii GRA4 Ahn et al, 2006
  424. PSMA4 binds to T.Gondii GRA6 Ahn et al, 2006
  425. PSMB8 proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 8 (large multifunctional peptidase 7)critical for host defense against T. gondii Tu et al, 2009
  426. PSMB9 proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 9 (large multifunctional peptidase 2); Gene upregulated in the brains of mice after one year infection by T.Gondii Hermes et al, 2008
  427. PSME1 proteasome (prosome, macropain) activator subunit 1 (PA28 alpha): Gene upregulated in the brains of mice after one year infection by T.Gondii Hermes et al, 2008
  428. PTGS2 prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (prostaglandin G/H synthase and cyclooxygenase) activated by infection in macrophages via a protein kinase C dependent pathway Peng et al, 2008
  429. PYCARD PYD and CARD domain containing: Infection of mice deficient in NLRP3, caspase-1/11, IL-1R, or PYCARD decreased levels of circulating IL18 and increased parasite replication, and death in mice Gorfu et al, 2014
  430. Pyridoxal phosphate: Generated by the parasite: Knockel et al, 2007
  431. RAB14 member RAS oncogene family: The parasite subverts host Golgi-derived vesicles within the parasitophorous vacuole, marked with Rab14, Rab30 or Rab43: Permits scavenging of host sphingolipids Romano et al, 2013.
  432. RAC1 – ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac1): RhoA and Rac1 GTPases from the host cell accumulate on the parasitophorous vacuole membrane Na et al, 2013
  433. RANBP1 binds to T.Gondii GRA10 Ahn et al, 2006
  434. RBM9 binds to T.Gondii GRA4 and GRA8 Ahn et al, 2006
  435. RPSA ribosomal protein SA: (Laminin receptor) binds to T.Gondii GRA8 Ahn et al, 2006
  436. RPL10 binds to T.Gondii GRA8 Ahn et al, 2006
  437. REL reticuloendotheliosis oncogene (c-rel) : Regulates Th1 immune responses to T.Gondii Mason et al, 2004
  438. RELA v-rel reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog A (avian): activated by T.Gondii GRA15 Rosowski et al, 2011
  439. RHD Rh blood group, D antigen: Protects agsinst changes in reaction time induced by the parasite in women. Flegr et al, 2008
  440. RHOA – ras homolog family member A: RhoA and Rac1 GTPases from the host cell accumulate on the parasitophorous vacuole membrane Na et al, 2013
  441. RPL10A binds to T.Gondii GRA1 Ahn et al, 2006
  442. RPS6 ribosomal protein S6: Phosphorylated by infection via MTOR Wang et al, 2009
  443. RPS6KB1 ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 70kDa, polypeptide 1: RSP6KB1 phosphorylation in response to insulin is blunted in infected cells: the parasite does not increase RPS6KB1 phosphorylation Wang et al, 2009
  444. RPS18 binds to T.Gondii GRA3 Ahn et al, 2006
  445. S100A1 S100 calcium binding protein A1: Gene upregulated in the brains of mice after one year infection by T.Gondii Hermes et al, 2008
  446. SEMA7A semaphorin 7A, GPI membrane anchor (John Milton Hagen blood group) : Expression increased in the frontal cortex of female infected mice Xiao et al, 2012
  447. SERPINB3 serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade B (ovalbumin), member 3 , B4, and B13 and SPINT2 expression is increased by infection in macrophages via JAK3 and STAT6 Ahn et al, 2009
  448. SERPINB4 (serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade B (ovalbumin), member 4) expression is increased by infection in macrophages via JAK3 and STAT6 Ahn et al, 2009
  449. SERPINB13 serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade B (ovalbumin), member 13 : expression is increased by infection in macrophages via JAK3 and STAT6 Ahn et al, 2009
  450. SERPING1 serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade G (C1 inhibitor), member 1: Gene upregulated in the brains of mice after one year infection by T.Gondii Hermes et al, 2008
  451. SFN Stratifin ( aka 14-3-3 sigma): Induced by infection in colonic carcinoma cell line HCT-116 Monro, 2008
  452. SGTA small glutamine-rich tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR)-containing, alpha: binds to T.Gondii GRA5 Ahn et al, 2006
  453. Sialic acid: Microneme proteins recognise sialic acid residues on the host cell surface TgMIC1 showing a preference for alpha2-3- over alpha2-6-linked sialyl-N-acetyllactosamine sequences and to 6'sulfo-sialyl Lewis(x): TgMIC13 prefers alpha2-9-linked disialyl sequences reported on embryonal cells and also 4-O-acetylated-Sialates found on gut epithelium Friedrich et al, 2010 Numerous host receptors or cell surface proteins possess sialic acid residues on their extracellular domains e.g SIGLECS (Wkipedia) (sialic acid binding Ig-like lectins) express extracellular sialic acid residues. SIGLECS (NCBI gene) include the Asialoglycoprotein receptors ASGR1 ASGR2 ·killer cell lectin-like receptor KLRD1 · Collectin (Mannan-binding lectin) · Mannose receptor · proteochondroitin sulfate (Aggrecan, Versican, Brevican, Neurocan) Calnexin · Calreticulin · CD22 · CD33 · Galectins · Myelin-associated glycoprotein ( MAG )· N-Acetylglucosamine receptor · Selectins and Sialoadhesins (Functional glycomics gateway)
  454. SLC3A2 solute carrier family 3 (activators of dibasic and neutral amino acid transport), member 2: Interacts with the ROP18 kinase Cheng et al, 2012
  455. SLC7A2 solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 2: Knockout mice are more susceptible to T.gondi Thompson et al, 2008
  456. SLC10A3 solute carrier family 10 (sodium/bile acid cotransporter family), member 3: binds to T.Gondii GRA10 Ahn et al, 2006
  457. SLC11A1 (nramp1) solute carrier family 11 (proton-coupled divalent metal ion transporters), member 1(iron and manganese transporter ) regulates mortality in mice following infection Evans et al, 2001
  458. SLIT1 slit homolog 1 (Drosophila) : Expression increased in the frontal cortex of male infected mice Xiao et al, 2012
  459. SLPI secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor: Gene upregulated in the brains of mice after one year infection by T.Gondii Hermes et al, 2008
  460. SMAD2 SMAD family member 2: Infection produves SMAD2 nuclear translocation in microglia Rozenfeld et al, 2005
  461. SOCS1 suppressor of cytokine signaling 1: SOCS1 overexpression in macrophages does not affect tachyzoite proliferation but abolishes the inhibitory effects of IFNG on parasite replication Zimmermann et al, 2006.
  462. SOCS3 suppressor of cytokine signaling 3: Regulates innate immune resistance to T.Gondii Whitmarsh et al, 2011
  463. SOD1 superoxide dismutase 1, soluble: The H2O2 or superoxide generated by host catalase or superoxide dismutase are per se insufficient to kill T.Gondii, but provide the substrates necessary to generate the products (hydroxy and other radicals) that are efficient microbicidals Murray and Cohn, 1979.
  464. SRF Serum Response Factor: Toxoplasma infection leads to the rapid activation of Serum Response Factor Wiley et al, 2011
  465. SPINT2 serine peptidase inhibitor, Kunitz type, 2 SPINT2, SERPINB3, B4, and B13 expression is increased by infection in macrophages via JAK3 and STAT6 Ahn et al, 2009
  466. STAT1 signal transducer and activator of transcription 1, 91kDa: IFNG activates STAT1 which is involved in antimicrobial effects: STAT1 knockout mice are less able to deal with T.Gondii Lieberman et al, 2004
  467. ST3GAL1 ST3 beta-galactoside alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase 1: reduced survival rates to T.Gondii in ST3GAL1 knockout mice Nishikawa et al, 2013
  468. STAT3 signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (acute-phase response factor): activated by ROP16 Yamamoto et al, 2009
  469. STAT6 signal transducer and activator of transcription 6, interleukin-4 induced: phosphorylated by T.Gondii ROP16 Ong et al, 2010: . binds to T.Gondii GRA10 Ahn et al, 2006
  470. Sulphated proteaglycans are used for cellular attachment : Attachment to host cells was disrupted by high doses of a variety of sulfated polysaccharides, including heparin, de-N-sulfated heparin, and heparan sulfate Carruthers et al, 2000.
  471. SYNE2 spectrin repeat containing, nuclear envelope 2: binds to T.Gondii GRA6 Ahn et al, 2006
  472. TAB1 TGF-beta activated kinase 1/MAP3K7 binding protein 1 : Activated by T.Gondii downstream of TRAF6 in macrophages Leng et al, 2009
  473. TAB2 TGF-beta activated kinase 1/MAP3K7 binding protein 2 : Activated by T.Gondii downstream of TRAF6 in macrophages Leng et al, 2009
  474. TAB3 TGF-beta activated kinase 1/MAP3K7 binding protein 3: Involved in T.Gondii stimulated IL12 production in macrophages Kim et al, 2005
  475. TAF1B TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factor, RNA polymerase I, B, 63kDa: binds to T.Gondii GRA10 Ahn et al, 2007
  476. TAP1 transporter 1, ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B (MDR/TAP): regulates natural killer cell IFNG production following infection Goldszmid et al, 2007
  477. Testosterone: infected men to have a higher concentration of testosterone and infected women to have a lower concentration of testosterone than Toxoplasma-free controls Flegr et al, 2008
  478. TAP2 transporter 2, ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B (MDR/TAP): Gene upregulated in the brains of mice after one year infection by T.Gondii Hermes et al, 2008
  479. TBXAS1 thromboxane A synthase 1 (platelet): Thromboxane inhibion of T.Gondii growth is blocked by thromoxane syntase iunhibition Yong et al, 1991
  480. TDO2 tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase: Exerts antimicrobial effects Schmidt et al, 2009
  481. TFF2 Trefoil factor 2: negatively regulates Type 1 Immunity against T.gondii McBerry et al, 2012
  482. TFRC Transferrin receptor T. gondii infection results in increased activity in the iron response protein IRP1 which stabilizes transferrin receptor TFRC mRNA from degradation Gail et al, 2004
  483. TGFB1 transforming growth factor, beta 1: IL10 regulates T.Gondii hypersensitivity responses Gaddi and Yap, 2007
  484. Tgtp1 (mouse) T-cell specific GTPase 1 phosphorylated by ROP18 Fentress et al, 2010
  485. TH Tyrosine hydroxylase (parasitic) Infection increases dopamine metabolism, an effect likely mediated by the parasites' own tyrosine hydroxylase converting tyrosine to L-DOPA, then converted to dopamine by host DOPA decarboxylase (DDC) Prandovszky et al, 2011 Monoamines: Mice with acute infections showed increased brain homovanillic acid levels: dopamine levels were unchanged. Norepinephrine levels were reduced.. Dopamine levels were 14% higher in the mice with chronic infections than controls. Serotonin and 5-HIAA levels were not altered in infected mice Stibbs, 1985.
  486. Thromboxane inhibits T.Gondii growth Yong et al, 1991
  487. Thyroxine: A rapid decline in serum thyroxine (T4) levels is seen in T.Gondii infected mice Stahl W, Kaneda, 1998
  488. TIMM13 translocase of inner mitochondrial membrane 13 homolog (yeast) : binds to T.Gondii GRA4 Ahn et al, 2006
  489. TIMM50 translocase of inner mitochondrial membrane 50 homolog (S. cerevisiae): binds to T.Gondii GRA4 Ahn et al, 2006
  490. TIMP1 TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 1 regulates parasite clearance in the brain Clark et al, 2011
  491. TIMP2 TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 2: Secretion decreased by infection Buache et al, 2007
  492. TJP1 tight junction protein 1 (zona occludens 1): Involved in the regulation of epithelial tight junctions that control T.Gondii infection Dalton et al, 2006
  493. TK1 thymidine kinase 1, soluble: binds to T.Gondii GRA4 and GRA8 Ahn et al, 2006
  494. TLR2 toll-like receptor 2 and TLR4 Activated by glycosylphosphatidylinositols derived from Toxoplasma gondii.Debierre-Grockiego et al, 2007
  495. TLR4 toll-like receptor 4: mediates signalling by T.Gondi heat shock prottein TgHSP70 Mub et al, 2005
  496. TLR5 toll-like receptor 5 : T.Gondii Profilin Triggers TLR5 dependent cytokine production Salazar Gonzalez et al, 2014.
  497. TLR9 toll-like receptor 9: : involved in the intestinal immune response following oral infection Minns et al, 2006
  498. TLR11 toll-like receptor 11: binds to T.Gondii profilin Kucera et al, 2010
  499. TLR12 toll-like receptor 12: Recognises T.Gondii profilin Koblansky et al, 2012
  500. TMSB10 thymosin beta 10: binds to T.Gondii GRA7 Ahn et al, 2006
  501. TNF tumor necrosis factor alpha: induced by T.Gondii Glycosylphosphatidylinositols in macrophages Debierre-Grockiego et al, 2003
  502. TNFRSF1A tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 1a: CNS inflammation to T.Gondii increased in knockout mice Silva et al, 2009
  503. TNFRSF1B tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 1b: Mice succumb to a fulminant necrotizing encephalitis in double TNFRSF1a/b knockout mice Yap et al, 1998
  504. TOR1AIP1 torsin A interacting protein 1: Interacts with the ROP18 kinase Cheng et al, 2012
  505. TP53 tumor protein p53: GRA16 alters p53 levels in a HAUSP (USP7) -dependent manner and induces nuclear translocation of the PP2A holoenzyme Bougdour et al, 2013
  506. TPST2 tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase 2: Interacts with the ROP18 kinase Cheng et al, 2012
  507. TPYSL2 TSPY-like 2 (CDA1) : Overexpression limits the growth of T.Gondii Radke et al, 2006
  508. TRA@ T cell receptor alpha : Knockout modifieds infection in mice Lee et al,1999
  509. TRAF6 TNF receptor-associated factor 6 :regulates the production of IL12 by macrophages in response to Toxoplasma gondii.Mason et al, 2004
  510. TRB@ . Purified human CD4+ alpha beta T cells but not CD8+ alpha beta T cells proliferate in response to T. gondii Subauste et al, 1998
  511. TRD@: Mice treated with anti-TCR-gamma delta monoclonal antibody are more susceptible to infection Nakano et al, 2001
  512. TRG@: Mice treated with anti-TCR-gamma delta monoclonal antibody are more susceptible to infection Nakano et al, 2001
  513. TRPC6 transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 6: activates host calpain resuling in proteolysis of the host cytoskeleton allowing parasite release Millholland et al, 2013
  514. TSEN34 tRNA splicing endonuclease 34 homolog (S. cerevisiae) : binds to T.Gondii GRA4 Ahn et al, 2006
  515. Tubulins (many possibilities in relation to precise gene symbols ) TgICMAP1 binds to microtubules and tubulins Heaslip et al, 2009 (Host cell invasion by Toxoplasma gondii is temporally regulated by the host microtubule cytoskeleton. Sweeney et al, 2010 )
  516. TUBG1 tubulin, gamma 1 associates with the parasitophorous vacuole Walker et al, 2008
  517. TXK TXK tyrosine kinase: Combined deletion in mice of LTK and TXK , causes defects in TCR responses and adaptive immune responses to Toxoplasma gondii in vivo Schaeffer et al, 1999
  518. TYK2 tyrosine kinase 2: Involved in the immune challenge to T.Gondii Shaw et al, 2006
  519. UCP1 uncoupling protein 1 (mitochondrial, proton carrier): Expression reduced following infection in vivo Arsenijevic et al, 2001
  520. UCP2 uncoupling protein 2 (mitochondrial, proton carrier): Knockout mice are resistant to infection Arsenijevic et al, 2000
  521. UHRF1 ubiquitin-like with PHD and ring finger domains 1: T,Gondii exploits UHRF1 and induces host cell cycle arrest at G2 to enable its proliferation Brunet et al, 2008.
  522. UNC93B1 unc-93 homolog B1 protects against infection Melo et al, 2010
  523. USP7 ubiquitin specific peptidase 7 (herpes virus-associated): binds to dense granule protein GRA16 Bougdour et al, 2013
  524. VCAM1 vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 : Plays an important role in T.Gondii cerebral infection Deckert et al, 2003
  525. Vitamin D: 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibits the intracellular growth Toxoplasma gondii in vitro and in vivo Rajapakse et al, 2007
    1. But: it also induces splenocyte apoptosis and enhances the sensitivity of BALB/c mice to toxoplasmosis.Rajapakse et al, 2005. 1,25(OH)2D3: Acts via VDR which plays an important role in immune defense, inter alia.
  526. Vitamin E: dietary supplementation with vitamin E and selenium resulted in a tendency for increased tissue cyst number, tissue pathology, and weight loss during infection. Mice fed a deficient diet (complete absence of vitamin E and selenium) showed the lowest mean numbers of tissue cysts and very little evidence of tissue pathology during chronic infection McCarthy and Davis, 2003
  527. DCAF7 ( ex WDR68) DDB1 and CUL4 associated factor 7 binds to T.Gondii GRA4 Ahn et al, 2006
  528. XDH Xanthine oxidase : The parasite is sentitive to free radical killing and to the products of xanthine oxidase which generates many radical species: The parasite does however express catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase which afford protection against host radical attack Hughes et al, 1989
  529. YWHAB tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, beta polypeptide: Induced by infection in colonic carcinoma cell line HT-29 Monro, 2008
  530. YWHAH tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, eta polypeptide : Induced by infection in colonic carcinoma cell line HCT-116 Monro, 2008
  531. YWHAQ tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, theta polypeptide: Induced by infection in colonic carcinoma cell line HCT-116 Monro, 2008
  532. Toxoplasma gondii depends on the purine-salvage pathway for its purine supply Chaudhary et al, 2004: Genes involved in this network include:-
  533. ADA adenosine deaminase
  534. ADK adenosine kinase
  535. AMPD1 adenosine monophosphate deaminase 1
  536. AMPD2 adenosine monophosphate deaminase 2
  537. AMPD3 adenosine monophosphate deaminase 3
  538. APRT adenine phosphoribosyltransferase
  539. DCK deoxycytidine kinase
  540. DGUOK deoxyguanosine kinase
  541. FPGT fucose-1-phosphate guanylyltransferase
  542. GMPR guanosine monophosphate reductase
  543. GMPR2 guanosine monophosphate reductase 2
  544. HPRT1 hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1
  545. PNP purine nucleoside phosphorylase
  546. TYMP thymidine phosphorylase
  547. Toxoplasma gondii sequesters lysosomes from mammalian hosts in the vacuolar space Coppens et al, 2006.
  548. T.Gondii infection can lead to elimination of Paneth cells of the small intestine producing a loss of antimicrobial peptides and uncontrolled expansion of the Enterobacteriaceae family of Gram-negative bacteria Raetz et al, 2013.

Compounds exerting cytotoxic effects against T.Gondii

  • Artemisinin and various derivatives inhibit T.Gondii growth Hencken et al, 2010
  • Aureobasidin A, an inhibitor of the enzyme synthesizing the sphingolipid inositol phosphorylceramide, which is present in fungi, plants, and some protozoa but absent in mammalian cells, was found to block in vitro T. gondii replication without affecting host cell metabolism Sonda et al, 2005.
  • Dimethylethanolamine inhibits parasite phosphatidylcholine synthesis and arrests growth Gupta et al, 2005
  • 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid, a platelet derived product of linoleic acid Henderson and Chi, 1992
  • Flurazepam and PK11195 exert toxic effects on T.Gondii (peripheral benzodiazepine receptor ligands) Dzierszinski et al, 2002
  • Dinitroaniline herbicides (ethalfluralin, oryzalin, trifluralin ) inhibit intracellular replication Stokkermans et al, 1996
  • Neuroleptics and valproate inhibit T.Gondii replication Jones-Brando et al, 2003
    • Dopamine stimulates the growth of tachyzoites in human fibroblasts and rat brain cells Strobl et al, 2012

Microarray data: Several hundred mRNA's are modified by T.Gondii infection in various models: The "top hits" , self-organising maps or clusters are reported here as defined by the authors.

Microarray analysis of T.Gondii infection in human cells Blader IJ, Manger ID, Boothroyd JC. Microarray analysis reveals previously
unknown changes in Toxoplasma gondii-infected human cells (Human foreskin fibroblasts).
J Biol Chem. 2001, 276(26):24223-31.

Downregulated ANXA1 ATF3 BCL3 BDKRB2 CCL7 CCND1 CD53 CDH13 CXCL1 CXCL2 DCT DUSP5 DUSP6 EDN1 EGR2 EREG ESM1 FGF7 GCH1 GDF15 GEM HBEGF ICAM1 IER3 IL1B IL6 IRF1 ITGA2 JUN JUNB LIF MMP3 MSX2 MT1L MYC NFKB1 NFKBIA NINJ1 NR4A2 NRG2 NT5E PLHDA1 PMAIP1 PSG5 PTGS2 RELB SERPINB2 SFRP1 SOD2 SPP1 SPRY2 STC1 TFF3 TFPI2 THBD TNFAIP2 TNFAIP3

Upregulated (Many genes of the sterol synthesis and glycolysis pathways -reflecting scavenging of host substrates) ENO1 FDPS GAPDH HK1 HMGCR HMGCS1 LDHA MVD PFKP PGAM1 PGK1 SQLE TPI1

Unique gene expression profiles of human macrophages and dendritic cells to phylogenetically distinct parasites. Chaussabel D, Semnani RT, McDowell MA, Sacks D, Sher A, Nutman TB., 2003

Upregulated AGRN B2M BCL2A1 CXCL8 CASP7 CCL17 CCL20 CCL4 CCL7 CCL8 CCR7 CD44 CD83 CFLAR CST7 CXCL1 CXCL10 CXCL11 CXCL2 CXCL3 CXCL9 CXCR4 DUSP1 DUSP4 DUSP5 EBI2 EDN1 EZH2 FSCN1 GADD45B GP1BA GYPC HIST2H2AA3 HLA-A HLA-C HLA-F HLA-G ICAM1 IFI35 IFI44L IFIT1 IFIT2 IFIT4 IFITM3 ISG15 IL15RA IL1B IL8 IRF11 ISG20 JAK1 LAMP3 MAOA MARCKSL1 MMP1 MOX2 MT2A MX1 MX2 MYD88 NAMPT NFKB1 NFKB2 NFKBIA NMB NR4A3 OAS2 OASL PLXNC1 PSMA2 PSMA3 PTPN1 PTPN2 REL RELA RSAD2 SERPING1 SOD2 STAT1 TAPBP TIMP1 TNFAIP2 TNFAIP3 TNFRSF4 TNFRSF5 TNFRSF9 TNFSF4 TNRC3 TNFSF10 TRADD TRAF1 UBE2S WNT5A

Several clusters of coordinatedly regulated genes were reported in this experimemt including:-

Cluster 1: ATP1B3 B2M BASP1 BCL2A1 CASP7 CCL17 CCL20 CD83 CFLAR CSF2RB CST7 CXCR4 CYP7B1 DUSP1 DUSP4 EBI2 EZH2 GADD45A GADD45B GAL GP1BA GYPC HIST2H2AA3 IL15RA IL7R JAK1 LAMP3 MARCKSL1 MAOA MOX2 NFKB1 NFKB2 NFKBIA NMB PBEF PDE4B PPP1R16B PSMB9 PSME PTPN1 PTPN2 RELA RELB RGS1 SAR1 SAT SERPINB9 STAT1 STX11 TAGLN2 TAP1 TNFAIP2 TNFAIP3 TNFRSF4 TNFRSF5 TRADD TRAF1 TRIP10 WNT5A

Cluster 2: AQP9 ATOX1 BCL3 CCL14 CCL4 CCL5 CD44 CXCL1 CXCL2 CXCL3 EDN1 EHD FOLH1 (PSMA) GK HBEGF ICAM1 IDO1 IL10R IL1B IL6 IL8 INHBA ITGB3 KYNU LTA MAP3K4 MSC MT1B MT1G OPTN PARP2 PFKFB3 PLSCR PVRL2 SLAMF1 SLC1A3 SLC7A11 SOCS3 STAT3 STOM TFRC TIMP1 TNFAIP6 WARS

Cluster 3: AGRN B2M BAZ1A CCL7 CCL8 CNP CXCL10 CXCL11 CXCL9 DNAJA1 EIF5 HLA-C HLA-F HLA-G HLA-J IFI35 IFITM IRF4 ISG15 ISG20 MCL1 MX1 MX2 MYD88 NFE2L2 NMI PLXNC1 PML PSMA RAPGEF2 RCL SERPING1 SSB STAT1 STAT4 TAPBP TCTEL1 TNFSF10 UBE2S

cDNA microarray analysis of host-pathogen interactions in a porcine in vitro model for Toxoplasma gondii infection. Okomo-Adhiambo M, Beattie C, Rink A. 2006

Upregulated : A2M ACADL ACO2 ARPC2 ATP6 BECN1 BIRC2 C4 C4BPA CAP1 C2orf28 CDC2L5 CDC45L CFLAR CIB1 CLK3 CNN3 COX3 CS CXCL12 CXCL9 CXCR4 CYTB DAD1 DBI DNASE2 DPM1 DPYD DSTN EBI3 ECI2 EIF2B4 ELK3 FARSLB FOS GGTA1 GLTP GRN GSTM4 H1FX HADHA HLA-DMB HLA-DQB HNRPLL HPSE HSP90AB1 HSPA8 IDH1 IDH2 IFI30 IFIT1 IFIT4 IFITM3 IGH@ IL2RG IL8RA KARS LCK MAP2K2 MAX MDH1 MR1 MTAP MYST4 ND1 ND4 NFE2L2 NFKB2 NME1 NME2 NME6 NR2F2 ORC4L PGAM2 PIGO PIK3CG PIP5K2A PKM1 PLAUR POL2RD POLB POLR1D PRG1 PRKCB PRTN3 PSMB8 PSMD14 PSME1 PTPNS1 RABGEF1 RHOG RPS15 S100A12 SAR1B SF3A3 SLC15A4 SNX2 STAT1 STAT6 SUCLG1 TAF11 TEC TOPORS TYMS UBE2D2 UBE2I UFD1L UMPS YME1L1

Down regulated DDIT3 EIF4G2 PCNA STK17B TTRAP

Modulation of the host cell proteome by the intracellular apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Nelson MM, Jones AR, Carmen JC, Sinai AP, Burchmore R, Wastling JM.: Infect Immun. 2008 Feb;76(2):828-44

Proteins or genes modified: ABCA13 ACAT1 ACTB ACTG1 ACTN1 AHNAK AK2 AKR1B1 ALB ALDH1AB ALDH1B1 ALDOA ALDOB ANXA1 ANXA2 ANXA5 ATP5D BASP1 ERP29 C14orf166 CALD1 CALU CAPZA1 CBR1 CCT2 CDC37 CFL1 CHCHD3 CHIT1 CKAP4 CLC CLIC1 CLIC4 CLTA CNN2 COL7A1 COX6B CPOX CSEN CTSB CTSD DCTN2 DDAH1 DES ECHS1 EEF1A2 ENO1 ETHE1 FHL2 FILIP1 GAPDH GNL3 GRP58 GSS GSTA2 HDLBP HEBP1 HEXB HNRNPK HNRNPA2B1 HNRNPC HNRNPF HNRNPH2 HSPA5 HSPA8 HSPA9B HSPB1 HSPD1 ITIH5 LASP1 LGALS1 LGALS3 LMNA LMNB1 LMNB2 LRP1 M6PRBP1 MAP1B MARCKS MFAPL3 MSN MTHFD2 MYH6 MYH9 MYL4 NAE1 NDUFS5 NEDD5 NPM1 NSFL1C P4HB PARK7 PBP PCK1 PCMT1 PDIR PDLIM1 PGK1 PGLS PGRMC1 PHB PIAS2 PKM2 PLCL1 PNPO PPA1 PPIA PRDX1 PRDX2 PRDX3 PRDX4 PRDX5 PRDX6 PSPC1 RAD23B RANBP1 RCN1 RPS12 S100A11 SERPINA1 SLC6A3 snf7dc2 SOD2 STIP1 STK16 TAGLN TAGLN2 THAP11 TMOD3 TPI1 TPM1 TPM2 TPM3 TPM4 TPTE2 TRA1 TUBA1 TUBB1 TUBB5 TUBE1 TXNDC5 UBA52 UBQLN2 UCHL1 UMP-CMPK VCL VDAC1 VIL2 VIM VPS33B WBSCR1 YWHAH ZNF235 ZYX

Impaired Chromatin Remodelling at STAT1-Regulated Promoters Leads to Global Unresponsiveness of Toxoplasma gondii-Infected Macrophages to IFN-gamma Christine Lang,1 Anke Hildebrandt, Franziska Brand, Lennart Opitz, Hassan Dihazi, and Carsten G. K. Lüder Plos Pathogens ,2012

Modification by T.Gondii of interferon inducible genes in bone marrow derived macrophages:

Parasite increased the stimulatory effects of interferon on the expression of :-

ARID5A ASS1 AXUD1 BCL9 CASP1 CCL5 CD69 CFB CLCN7 CXCL11 DDX4 DUSP28 EPAS1 FAM161A FLT1 GABRB3 GJD3 GNB4 GPR114 H2-T22 HERC5 IFIT2 IL15RA INPP5B KRT85 LTB MX1 NOS2 P2RY14 PARP11 PHF11 PTPRZ1 SEL1 Slco3a1 SLFN1 TAPBP TGFBI TGS1 TPST1 TRAFD1 TSPO TYK2 USP37 ZBTB7

Parasite decreased the stimulatory effect of interferon on the expression of :-

ABTB2 ACE3 ACSL1 AIF1 AIG1 ANKRD33 AOAH APLS3 APOL7C ARHGAP15 ARHGEF10 ASGR2 ASS1 AU020206 AW112010 BAT5 BATF2 BATF3 BC013712 BC037703 BC057170 BC057170 BCAN BRDT BST1 C1R C1S C130026I21Rik C3 C4B CACNALI CAMK1D CCL12 CCL5 CCL8 CCR2 CD1D1 CD1D2 CD226 CD274 CD2AP CD38 CD74 CD86 CENPO CH25H CHMP4C CHST4 CIITA CIRH1A CLEC9A CLIC5 CNN3 CPE CREB5 CST7 CTSC CTSH CXCL9 CXCL10 Cyp4f15 D14Ertd668e DEPDC1B DISP2 DLG2 DNA2 DNASE1L3 DNM1 DPY19L1 DUSP10 TMEM232 ( =E130009J12RIK) E130309D02RIK Gm4759 (=EG209380) serpina3j (=EG238395) gM4951 (=EG240327) gM5077 (=EG317677) gM5797 (=EG545013) gm8995 (=EG668139) EPCAM ERC2 ESR1 ETV2 EXOC6 FAM107A FAM164C FAM26F FAM55C FAM82A2 FAM82A2 FANCA FBXL5 FBXO36 FCGR4 FGD2 FGL2 FPR2 FREM2 GALNT3 GALNT3 GARNL4 GATA1 GBP1 GBP2 GBP3 GBP4 GBP5 GBP6 GFM2 GGCT GLIPR2 GLS GM1966 GM1966 GM2A GNB2L1 GNB4 GPD2 GPR137 GPR141 GPR17 GPR171 GPR174 GPR18 GTPBP2 GUSB GVIN1 H28 H2-AA H2-AB1 H2-DMA H2-DMB1 H2-DMB1 H2-DMB2 H2-EA H2-EB1 H2-M10.2 H2-OA HDAC9 HDGFRP3 HERC5 HK3 HOXB5 HRCT1 ICAM1 ICK IFI47 IFITM6 IGFBP3 IGTP IHH IIGP1 IKZF2 IL12RB2 IL17C IL18BP IL2RG IL3 IL4RA INPP5J INTS4 IRF1 IRF8 IRG1 IRGM1 IRGM2 ITGA8 ITGAL ITGB7 ITPKA ITPR1 KATNA1 KCNK7 KIF5C KLF2 KLHL6 KLRA2 KLRK1 KRT8 LAIR1 LAP3 LASS6 LASS6 LDLR LPIN2 LRRC8C LY6A LY6C1 LY6C2 LY6F LY6I LYPLA1 MAGOHB MEGF6 MEX3B MEX3B MEX3B MFSD7A MLKL MMP25 MPA2L MRPL33 MTHFD2 MYH10 NAAA NAMPT NAMPT NLRC5 NOD1 NOD2 NRXN2 NT5C1B NUMA1 OBFC2A OLFR108 OLFR1341 OLFR1509 OLFR27 OLFR355 OLFR703 OTC OTTMUSG00000005523 OTTMUSG00000005723 OTUD1 PADI6 PARP8 PARP9 PAXIP1 PDCD1LG2 PFKP PGS1 PIK3IP1 PIM1 PION PLA2G16 PLA2G4A PLAC8 PLXNA3 PNP1 PNPLA5 PPARGC1B PPT1 PRDX5 PSMB10 PSMB8 PSMB9 PSME1 PSME2 PSTPIP2 PTGS2 PVR QPCT RAB27A RAB43 RAB43 RAB43 RAMP2 RBL1 RBM4B RCN3 RDH19 RIPK3 RNASE6 RNF152 RNF19B RNF213 RNF24 S100A14 SAA3 SAMHD1 SAMM50 SCD2 SDC3 SECTM1A SEMA4A SERPINA3F SERPINA3G SERPINB9 SFXN2 SLA2 SLAMF8 SLAMF9 SLC19A3 SLC25A37 SLC2A6 SLC31A1 SMPDL3B SNED1 SOCS1 SOCS3 SPATA17 SPO11 STAT1 STX11 SVEP1 TACR3 TAP1 TAP2 TAPBP TAPBPL TBC1D9 TCF7L2 TCHH TGM2 TGS1 TGTP TGTP THBS1 THBS1 THBS1 TIFAB TIMD4 TMEFF1 TMEM173 TMEM2 TMEM67 TMIE TMSB10 TMTC4 TNFRSF14 TNIK TNNI3 TNNI3 TPPP3 TRIM21 TRPM2 TTC7 TXN1 UBD UBOX5 UNC13D UPP1 USP12 VAX1 WARS WDYHV1 ZBP1 ZC3H12D ZFP689 ZYX

Parasite increased the inhibitory effects of interferon on the expression of :-

9030425E11Rik CD14 CXCL2 EDNRB EMR4 IGFBP4 ITGAX MMP9 PENK1 PPBP SESN1

Parasite decreased the inhibitory effect of interferon on the expression of :-

1110002B05Rik (1110032E23Rik = FAM198B) 1300002K09Rik 1810011H11Rik 2010111I01Rik (2310016C08Rik = HILPDA) 2310030G06Rik 2310044G17Rik 2310044G17Rik 2310044G17Rik 2410066E13Rik (2610030H06Rik = VMA21) 3200002M19Rik 3200002M19Rik 3200002M19Rik (4732429D16Rik = CD300LD ) 4930405H06Rik 4930486L24Rik 6330509M05Rik 9030425E11Rik 9630019E01Rik A_51_P166967 A_51_P192998 A_51_P235835 A_51_P293069 A_51_P350252 A_51_P445823 A_51_P468415 A_51_P469153 A_51_P512379 A_51_P516125 A_52_P101728 A_52_P1028698 A_52_P1045181 A_52_P1092038 A_52_P113950 A_52_P1149594 A_52_P12023 A_52_P221593 A_52_P234695 A_52_P260407 A_52_P300730 A_52_P303650 A_52_P351116 A_52_P356604 A_52_P359316 A_52_P377838 A_52_P431859 A_52_P465129 A_52_P46688 A_52_P493400 A_52_P517668 A_52_P525705 A_52_P52586 A_52_P555144 A_52_P564962 A_52_P604345 A_52_P605480 A_52_P647906 A_52_P68440 A_52_P82305 A_52_P917226 A_52_P932392 A_52_P989397 A230066D03Rik A430108G06Rik A930005I04Rik AADACL1 ABCA1 ABCB4 ABCD2 ABHD12 ACTA2 ACTN1 ADAM2 ADAM8 ADCY3 ADFP ADRA1A AGAP1 ANGPTL2 ANK ANKRD55 ANXA1 ANXA3 APBB2 APH1B APH1C APLP2 APOC2 AQP9 ARG2 ARHGAP6 ARHGAP18 ARHGAP19 ARHGAP22 ARHGAP25 ARSB ATP6V0A1 ATP6V0D2 ATP6V1A ATM BC016495 BC031353 BC051665 BCAR3 BJLHE41 BLNK BLVRA BMP2 BRI3 (C030034L19Rik = ZFP704) (C030044C12Rik = RNF150)C3AR1 C5AR1 C77080 C77713 CALD1 CAV1 CAV2 CCDC74A CCL3 CCL4 CCL9 CCRK CCRN4L CD9 CD28 CD68 CD84 CD109 CD163 CD200 CD300LF CENPA CERK CHN2 CHST11 CLEC1A CLEC4A2 CLEC4B1 CLEC4D CLEC4N CNKSR3 CNRIP1 COL1A1 COL1A2 COL4A5 COL6A1 COL6A3 COL8A1 COL12A1 COLEC12 CPEB3 CPEB4 CSF1 CTGF CTLA2A CTLA2B CTSB CTSB CTSD CTSL CX3CR1 CXCL1 CXCL5 CXCR4 CYP1B1 CYP4F39 (D230014K01Rik = ENGASE )DAB2 DAGLB DHRS3 DKK2 DNMT3A DTNBP1 DTX4 DUSP4 EAR1 EAR3 EAR10 EDNRB EG328314 EG433637 ELL2 EMP1 EMP2 ENPP1 Epb4.1l3 EPN2 EYA4 F13A1 FABP4 FABP5 FABP12 FAM20C FAM63A FCRLS FGF13 FKBP9 FLCN FN1 FNIP2 FOLR2 GAB1 GABARAPL1 FNIP2 GADD45A GADD45B GAS1 GAS2L3 GAS6 GDF3 GDPD1 GFRA4 GLUL GM22 GMPR GNA12 GPNMB GPR176 GPR183 GPX3 GSTM1 GSTM3 GSTM5 HIST1H1C HIST1H2BC HIST1H4I HMOX1 HPGD HVCN1 ID2 IDH1 IFI27L1 IGF1 IGFBP7 IL1RL1 IL1RN IL17R ITGA6 ITGA9 ITGB5 ITSN1 JAG1 KCTD12B KIF3A KLK1B21 KLKB27 LHFP12 LHFP14 LOX LRP4 MAF MAGED1 MAN1A MAN2A2 MAOA MGLL MGP MICAL2 MMP12 MOCOS MPP1 MPPED2 MS4A14 MS4A7 MTSS1 MYO1B MYO3B NAT81 NCOA4 NDST1 NEDD4 NME4 NPDC1 NPL NPTX1 NPY NRCAM NTFDC2 OIT3 OLFR1474 OLFR17 OLFR43 OLFR996 OSBPL11 OSBPL8 OTTMUSG00000016703 P2RY1 P2RY2 PCP4L1 PCTK3 PDE1C PDE2A PDPN PF4 pg100039832 PHYHD1 PLAGL1 PLK2 PLSCR4 PLTP PLXNA1 PLXNA2 PLXNC1 PMP22 POMT2 POR PPFIBP1 PPIC PRSS23 PTAFR PTGFRN RAB11FIP5 RAB26 RAIL4 RAPGEF5 RAPH1 RASGEF1B RASGRP3 RBPMS REPS2 RGS18 RHOB RHOC RHOJ RNASEL RNF128 RNF149 RNF150 RP23-331L12.8 RPL39L RRAGC RRAGD RTTN S1PR1 SASH1 SERPINB2 SERPINB6A SERPINE1 SESN1 SH2B2 SH3BGRL2 SH3BP5 SLC11A2 SLC16A10 SLC24A3 SLC26A11 SLC27A1 SLC39A8 SLC40A1 SLC6A8 SLC9A7 SLCO2B1 SMPD3 SNX27 SNX29 SOAT1 SOCS6 SORT1 SPARC SPIC SPP1 SPSB4 ST6GAL1 STAB1 STAC2 STAP1 STMN1 STRN SULF2 SYN3 SYNGR1 SYT8 TAGLN TANC1 Tcrb-J TECPR1 TES TFRC THBD TIMP1 TIMP2 TLR7 TMEM65 TMOD1 TNC TNS1 TOM1L1 TPM1 TPM2 TPP1 TREM2 TRF TRIM62 TSLP VN1R1 VAT1 VCAN VCL VSIG2 WBP5 WDTC1 WWP1 XYLT2 YIF1B ZAR1 ZDHHC14 ZFAND2A ZFYVE28 ZRANB3


Sex-specific changes in gene expression and behavior induced by chronic Toxoplasma infection in mice.Xiao J, Kannan G, Jones-Brando L, Brannock C, Krasnova IN, Cadet JL, Pletnikov M, Yolken RH Neuroscience. 2012 Mar 29;206:39-48. Epub 2012 Jan 3

Frontal cortex expression

Upregulated in male mice ABLIM1 AQP1 BMP6 GLIS2 KCNV2 OLFR1436 OLFR564 SLIT1 TAS2R140
Upregulated in female mice NODAL OLFR10 OLFR1404 OLFR142 OLFR156 OLFR622 PDYN PPEF2 RDH8 SEMA7A SMARCD1 TACC3 TNFRSF12A

Downregulated in male mice ARSB DPYSL2 DRD4 FOXN4 OLFR1496 OLFR207 OLFR213 OLFR373 OLFR47 OLFR485 OLFR493 OLFR670
Downregulated in female mice CHL1 EYA1 FABP7 MYC SOX2

Differential Effects of Three Canonical Toxoplasma Strains on Gene Expression in Human Neuroepithelial Cells Jianchun Xiao, Lorraine Jones-Brando, C. Conover Talbot, Jr., Robert H. Yolken Infect Immun. 2011 March; 79(3): 1363–1373

Downregulated in the forebrain APAF1, NDE1, BBS2, RAX, IFT88, NOTCH3, ATP7A, BBS4, MKKS, APLP1, and
DRD1 Fownregulated in the hindbrain MAFB, IGF1, MYO16, ATP7A, and GAS1

List of 1423 genes differentially expressed between Toxoplasma type I infection and controls
Down regulated
ABCA5 ABHD4 ACAD10 ACAD11 ACADVL ACOX1 ACTR1A ADA ADAMTS10 ADCK1 ADCY6 AIFM1 AKTIP ALDH1B1 ALDH6A1 ALDH7A1 ALDH9A1 AMN ANGEL1 ANGPTL4 ANKRD5 ANKRD50 ANO8 ANXA1 AP1G2 AP2A1 APAF1 APBB1 APCDD1 APH1B APLP1 APOBEC3B APOBEC3D APOD ARHGAP19 ARHGAP28 ARRDC3 ARRDC4 ARRDC4 AS3MT ASF1B ATP12A ATP2B4 ATP7A ATXN3 AXIN2 BAZ2A BBS2 BBS4 BCAS4 BCDIN3D BCL11B BIVM BLVRB BRWD3 BTBD12 BTN3A3 C10orf107 C11orf60 C11orf63 C11orf80 C12orf66 C13orf1 C13orf38 C14orf132 C14orf133 C14orf49 C14orf64 C16orf58 C16orf75 C17orf69 C19orf51 C19orf54 C1R C20orf108 C20orf194 C20orf72 C21orf29 C5orf33 C6 C6orf182 C7 C8orf79 C8orf83 C9orf130 C9orf23 C9orf72 CACNA1G CALM3 CAND1 CAP2 CAPN1 CASC5 CAT CCBL1 CCDC111 CCDC15 CCDC25 CCNYL1 CCS CD276 CD82 CD99 CD99L2 CDC2 CDH20 CDK2 CDK5RAP3 CDKL5 CDKN3 CDON CHCHD10 CHD6 CHMP2A CIRBP CIT CKLF CLDN1 CNDP2 CNTN1 COG4 COG6 COL16A1 COL1A1 COL1A2 COL6A1 COPB1 CORO1B CPNE3 CPT1A CPT1C CREB3 CRIP2 CRYZL1 CSAD CSF3 CSRNP3 CTBS CTCFL CTDSP2 CXADR CXorf23 CXorf38 CXorf39 CYB5A CYP24A1 CYP2R1 DAK DCAKD DCN DCP1B DDAH2 DDB2 DDIT3 DDR2 DGUOK DHRS1 DHRS7 DKFZP434B2016 DLG4 DLGAP5 DNMT3B DPY19L3 DRD1 DSN1 DYNC1I2 DYNLT3 EBF3 EEF1D EFNB1 EIF4A2 EIF4B ELMO2 ERBB2 ERO1LB ETFB FADS1 FADS2 FADS3 FAH FAM100B FAM123A FAM129B FAM149B1 FAM164A FAM175A FAM65C FAM70A FAM91A2 FAM98C FANCI FBLN1 FBXL4 FBXO16 FBXO43 FCGRT FKBP9 FLJ10357 FLJ20464 FLJ32065 FLJ39349 FLJ40113 FLJ43276 FLOT1 FNBP1 FOLH1 FOXN3 FZD4 GALNT6 GALT GAMT GAS1 GAS2L3 GCNT4 GDI1 GEFT GEMIN8 GFPT1 GIPC1 GK GLE1 GLG1 GLT8D2 GMIP GNE GNGT2 GOLGA2 GOLGA9P GOLGA9P GPR124 GPR162 GPRASP2 GPRC5B GPSN2 GRK5 GRN GTF2A1 GYG2 GYS1 H2AFX H2BFXP HADHA HAUS4 HCFC2HDAC5 HDAC6 HDDC3 HEATR5A HELLS HERC2P7 HIST1H1B HIST1H2AB HIST1H2AL HIST1H2BE HIST1H3A HIST1H3H HIST1H3J HIST1H4I HIST2H4A HMG20B HMGXB4 HOTAIR HOXC13 HOXC6 HSD17B2 HSD17B6 HSDL2 HSP90B1 HSPA5 IDH2 IDH3G IFI44 IFI44L IFITM1 IFNA6 IFT52 IFT81 IFT88 IGF1 IGF2BP2 IGSF3 IL11RA ILK IMPA2 IMPACT IRAK4 ITGA5 ITGB5 ITM2C JRKL JUP KANK2 KATNAL1 KBTBD3 KBTBD7 KCNMB4 KCTD9 KDELR1 KIAA0323 KIAA0406 KIAA0528 KIAA1279 KIAA1618 KIAA1715 KIF13B KIF16B KIF27 KLHDC2 KLHL12 KLHL13 KLHL5 KNTC1 KRBA2 KRT10 LACTB2 LAGE3 LASP1 LETMD1 LGALS3BP LGR4 LIG1 LNPEP LOC100128077 LOC100128672 LOC100129835 LOC100129938 LOC100130027 LOC100131490 LOC100133050 LOC138864 LOC283267 LOC349196 LOC387787 LOC387790 LOC388152 LOC390298 LOC440288 LOC642612 LOC645251 LOC649238 LOC728018 LOC728485 LOC728767 LOC728855 LOC80154 LOC80154 LOC90110 LOXHD1 LPCAT4 LRCH2 LRP1 LRRC17 LRRC28 LRRC4B LRRC6 LTA4H LUM LYSMD4 MAFB MAGEB3 MAGED1 MAGED2 MAGED4B MAGED4B MAOA MAP2K6 MAP4K2 MAPK3 MARCH9 MBD3L2 MBD3L2 MCM3APAS MEG3 MEG8 METTL7A MFAP4 MFGE8 MGC16703 MKKS MLC1 MMD MMP14 MMP19 MORC4 MOSPD2 MOV10 MPHOSPH9 MPP1 MPP7 MRO MSRB2 MTHFD1 MTSS1 MUM1 MYEF2 MYEOV MYH10 MYO16 MYPN N6AMT1 NAALAD2 NAGA NBEAL1 NBR1 NCKAP1L NDE1 NDRG2 NDRG3 NDUFV3 NECAB1 NETO1 NHLRC2 NID2 NIPSNAP1 NME4 NOTCH3 NOTUM NPC2 NPHP3 NRM NRTN NTAN1 NUCB2 OBFC1 OBFC2B OCLN OSBPL1A OSTF1 OVOS2 PACSIN3 PALM PAN2 PAPPA PARD6G PARP8 PCCB PCDH18 PCDH18 PCDHB11 PCDHB9 PCMTD1 PCSK5 PCTK1 PCTP PDE4DIP PDE9A PDK2 PDZD11 PENK PFKL PGF PGLS PGPEP1 PHKB PIGO PIH1D1 PIK3CA PKN1 PKN3 PLCB2 PLCB3 PLCXD1 PLD1 PLD3 PLEC1 PLS3 PNMA2 POLI POU4F2 PPAPDC2 PPFIA3 PPP1R1A PPP1R3D PRC1 PREX1 PRIM1 PRMT2 PSIP1 PSME2 PTGR2 PTK2B PTPN11 PTPRS PURG PVRL2 PXMP3 PXMP4 PYGL R3HDM2 RAB26 RAB2B RAB3D RAB5B RAB8B RABAC1 RACGAP1 RACGAP1P RAD52 RARG RAX RBCK1 RBL2 RBM12B RBMS2 RCAN3 RCN3 RCOR2 RECK REEP6 RFPL3 RFTN2 RHOC RHPN2 RHPN2 RIBC2 RILPL1 RIMKLB RIT1 RN7SK RNF141 RNF145 RNF152 RNF175 RNF213 RNF219 RNF5P1 RNFT2 RP11-278E11.2 RP2 RPL10P15 RPL13P5 RPL7L1 RPS11 RPS20P27 RPS29 RPS3 RPS6P1 RPS9 RRAS RRBP1 RRM2B RWDD2B SCN2A SCN8A SEL1L SENP7 SEPSECS SEPT6 SEPX1 SERPING1 SFRS14 SGPL1 SGSM3 SHKBP1 SHMT1 SILV SLC12A6 SLC16A2 SLC25A15 SLC25A23 SLC25A29 SLC25A30 SLC25A36 SLC26A7 SLC29A4 SLC29A4 SLC29A4 SLC30A4 SLC30A5 SLC37A4 SLC40A1 SLC44A1 SLC44A2 SLC46A3 SLC48A1 SLC9A3R2 SLCO1C1 SMARCA2 SMUG1 SNAPC3 SNN SNORD114-3 SNTA1 SNX16 SNX17 SOHLH2 SPC24 SPCS2 SPG11 SRGAP2P1 SRR STAT2 STRADA STRADB STRN STRN3 SULF2 SWAP70 SYNGR4 TADA2L TAS2R43 TAZ TBC1D2B TBC1D8B TBPL1 TCTN1 TERF1 TFDP2 TGFBR1 THAP2 THY1 TIMM17B TK1 TLK2 TM7SF2 TMBIM1 TMEM106C TMEM107 TMEM116 TMEM119 TMEM132B TMEM135 TMEM170B TMEM187 TMEM218 TMEM41B TMEM65 TMEM71 TMEM8 TMEM84 TMEM91 TNFRSF11A TOM1L2 TP53INP1 TPRX1 TRAV8-3 TRDMT1 TRIM32 TRIM5 TRIM64 TRIP10 TRO TRPM4 TRPT1 TSHZ2 TSPAN11 TSPAN18 TSPYL2 TTBK2 TTC28 TTC33 TTC38 TTC39B TTC5 TTC9C TTLL6 TTLL7 TUBG2 TWIST1 UACA UBE2L6 UBR5 UEVLD USP18 USP20 USP28 VANGL1 VAT1 VCAM1 VN1R1 VPS28 VPS33B WASH5P WBP1 WBP1 WBP2 WDR47 XAGE1D XG XRCC6BP1 XRRA1 YPEL5 ZC4H2 ZCCHC24 ZDHHC12 ZFP14 ZMYM2 ZMYM3 ZNF217 ZNF221 ZNF280B ZNF280D ZNF34 ZNF362 ZNF385A ZNF397OS ZNF41 ZNF449 ZNF467 ZNF555 ZNF625 ZNF627 ZNF658 ZNF75D ZSCAN2 ZSCAN4

Upregulated: A2M AADACL3 ABCB8 ADAMTS1 ADORA1 AEN AGPAT9 ALG1 ALPK2 ANKRD20B ARC ARIH2 ARSB ASCL5 ATF3 ATOH8 ATP1B1 B4GALNT1 BATF3 BCDIN3D BEX1 C12orf64 C14orf169 C14orf43 C15orf56 C17orf52 C17orf64 C18orf12 C1orf109 C1orf128 C1orf163 C1orf69 C1orf69 C3orf31 C3orf51 C4orf49 C6orf168 C6orf72 C7orf26 C7orf57 C8orf33 C8orf54 CA13 CA3 CAMK2N1 CCDC6 CCNJ CD1D CD24 CEBPA CECR3 CHST4 CLPTM1L CNNM1 COX7C CRCP CREB5 CSN1S2A CSRNP1 CSRP1 CST9L CTGF CTSL2 CXCL5 CXorf49 CYR61 DACT1 DCTD DDAH1 DDI2 DDN DKFZp686O24166 DLX2 DNAJB4 DOCK10 DPY19L2 DSE DUSP1 DUSP5 EDN2 EFCAB2 EGR1 EGR2 EGR3 EGR4 EIF4H ELL2 EPHX4 EPPK1 ERRFI1 FABP5 FABP5L3 FAM138A FAM75B FERMT2 FHL2 FJX1 FKBP5 FKSG83 FLJ20021 FLJ23152 FLJ32255 FLJ42220 FLVCR1 FOS FOSL2 FXYD1 GADD45A GAL GCC2 GCLM GFRA3 GGT8P GIPC2 GLIPR1 GNG12 GPR125 GPR150 GPR45 GPR75 GPR87 GPR88 GRIN2A GRPEL1 GSTA3 hCG_1806964 HEYL HHIP HIST1H3C HK2 HLA-DQA2 HMGCS2 HNRNPCL1 HNRNPM HOMER1 HTR1D HTR3E IER2 IFNA1 IGFBP3 IL12RB2 IL27RA IL31 IL7R INA ING5 JHDM1D JUNB KALRN KBTBD10 KBTBD8 KCNJ12 KCNMA1 KCNMB2 KCTD15 KITLG KLF10 KLF5 KLHL21 KRT37 KRTAP4-11 LAMA4 LANCL2 LCE1E LDLRAD1 LDLRAD2 LGR5 LOC100128402 LOC100128587 LOC100129175 LOC100129286 LOC100129662 LOC100129827 LOC100130017 LOC100130701 LOC100130749 LOC100131132 LOC100131144 LOC100131170 LOC100131311 LOC100132738 LOC100133070 LOC100133689 LOC100134359 LOC115110 LOC131055 LOC157503 LOC221710 LOC283501 LOC286161 LOC286184 LOC375010 LOC389904 LOC401177 LOC401321 LOC401620 LOC439938 LOC442075 LOC642943 LOC645317 LOC645605 LOC646627 LOC727753 LOC727947 LOC728147 LOC728264 LOC729306 LOC729312 LOC730227 LOC731042 LOC90246 LPCAT1 LPIN1 LRRC36 LSG1 MAGEA9 MAP3K14 MAP6D1 MCL1 MCM9 MEMO1 MGC16121 MIR21 MLXIP MTF1 MTHFD1L MTRF1L MYADM MYBBP1A MYH9 MYOF NCRNA00116 NDUFS7 NEXN NFKB1 NHEDC1 NHEDC2 NIPAL1 NOP14 NR1D1 NR4A1 NR4A2 NSUN4 NT5E OCM OR10G7 OR2C1 OR4C16 OR4D5 OR5D13 OR5H1 OR5J2 OR5M8 OR8H1 OTOR OTUD4 PABPC4 PATL1 PAXIP1 PCOLCE2 PDCD11 PDXDC1 PDXDC2 PEA15 PER2 PER3 PGM2 PHF15 PHOX2A PKD1 PLD6 PLN POLE3 POLR1A POLR1B POLR1C POTEE PPARGC1B PPBPL1 PPIF PRICKLE1 PRKAR1B PRL PRLHR PROK2 PSORS1C1 PTCRA PTDSS1 PTGER4 PTGS2 PTX3 PUS1 PZP QRSL1 RBM19 RBM28 RCC2 RGPD1 RGPD6 RNASE10 RND3 RNU6ATAC RP1-21O18.1 RPL23AP53 RPS3AP13 RPS8P4 RPSAP30 RRP1B RSC1A1 RUNDC3B S100A5 SCARA3 SCFD1 SCFD2 SDPR SENP5 SERTAD1 SH2D4A SH3BP2 SLC12A2 SLC1A3 SLC25A19 SLC25A21 SLC25A25 SLC27A2 SLC35D1 SLC7A1 SLC7A5 SLCO1A2 SLCO4A1 SLFN12L SLMO1 SMG5 SNX30 SOD2 SPDEF SPDYE8P SPRR4 SRF TAC1 TAS2R39 TBC1D3B TBC1D3D TCEB3C TCP10L TCP10L2 TEAD4 TEX28 TFB2M TGFBRAP1 TIGD4 TJP2 TLE4 TLX3 TMEM176A TMEM198 TMEM201 TMEM97 TNIP2 TREML4 TRIB1 TRIM36 TSSK4 TTL TTLL3 TUFT1 TWISTNB TXNRD1 UCA1 ULBP1 ULBP3 UNQ6490 USP31 UTS2 VIPR2 WDR1 WDR3 XPO5 ZFP36L2 ZIC1 ZIC5 ZNF259 ZNF286A ZNF398 ZYX

List of 162 genes differentially expressed between Toxoplasma type II infection and controls
Down regulated
BCAR1 C8orf17 DPP10 FAM22A GAGE10 GOLGA2LY1 IFI27L1 KIAA1654 KRTAP19-5 LOC100129218 LOC100129597 LOC642826 MGC4294 NAP1L5 OR52B4 OR7E140P PNKD RIMBP3 S100A11 SLC17A4 SUMO1P1 TCTEX1D4 ZNF532 ZSCAN20

Upregulated AK3L1 ALG1 ANP32C C17orf61 COX7C CSN1S2A CTBP2 EPCAM ETS1 FEM1C FLJ16779 FLJ43681 FLJ45445 FTHL19 GHRH GIN1 HIST1H3C INF2 KCTD2 KRT37 LOC100129015 LOC100130452 LOC100131132 LOC148413 LOC339685 LOC388720 LOC401620 LOC645317 LOC645534 LOC645605 LOC653355 LOC727918 LOC728098LOC728855 LOC90246 MAP3K9 NHEDC1 NHP2L1 NMI OR1M1 PDK1 PPAT RPL12P14 RPL18AP3 RPL7AP45 SH3BP5L TAS2R39 FLJ45340 TMEM170B TNFAIP6 TRIM36 TRIP11 VIPR2 ZNF738

List of 478 genes differentially expressed between Toxoplasma type III infection and controls
Downregulated AACS AASDH ADRA1A AHSA2 AMY2A ANP32E AP1S3 APAF1 APH1B ARRDC4 ASXL3 ATP1B2 BTN3A3 C13orf1 C14orf139 C14orf147 C2orf69 C6 C7orf47 C8orf79 C8orf83 C9orf126 CALR CECR2 CLGN CNOT6L CNOT6L CSRNP3 CTBS CTCFL CXXC4 DHRS7 DLX4 DNM1P41 EIF4B ELMOD1 ETV1 FADS1 FAM115A FAM149B1 FAM70A FBXL4 FKBP7 FLJ32065 FLJ43681 FOXN3 FZD7 GALNT6 GCLC GK5 GLRX2 GOLGA8E HLTF HNMT HOXD3 ITGA6 KCTD2 KDELR3 KIAA1107 KIAA1161 KIAA1305 KIAA1586 KIF13B KLHL5 LBH LIPH LNP1 LOC100128156 LOC100128672 LOC100132885 LOC100133050 LOC100133705 LOC100271715 LOC150786 LOC171220 LOC283267 LOC286052 LOC727929 LOC728080 LOC729749 LOC730101 LOC90110 LRTOMT MAGED1 MAP2K6 MEG3 METTL7A MXRA7 MYO6 NAP5 NBEA NBEAL1 NOTCH3 OR7E140P P2RY1 PCCB PCDH18 PCMTD1 PCTP PI4KAP2 PMS2L5 PPM1K PTGES PURG RAB43 RBM24 RCOR2 RCOR2 RECK RIMKLB RPL23A RPL23AP32 RPL7L1 SCN2A SENP7 SERPING1 SESTD1 SFRP2 SIAH3 SLC16A2 SLC29A4 SLC30A4 SLC46A3 SLC4A7 SNORD114-3 STRADB SYNC TFPI TMEM170B TMEM63B TSHZ2 TSPAN18 TTC33 TTC39B TTLL6 TTLL7 UVRAG VANGL1 VPS8 YES1 ZNF217 ZNF362 ZNF385A ZNF467

Upregulated AAMP ABCB5 ADRB3 AEN ALG1 ANKLE1 ARMC6 ATAD3A ATAD3B ATAD3C ATP6V0B BCL2L12 BID BOP1 BRMS1 C10orf2 C12orf29 C19orf39 C1orf107 C1orf128 C1orf31 C1orf69 C2CD2L C2orf63 C3orf16 C8orf33 C9orf156 CCDC86 CCNJ CD1D CLCN7 CLN3 CLN6 CSN1S2A CTGF CXorf52 CXXC1 CYB561D2 CYB5D1 DDI2 DDN DDX49 DDX56 DOHH DPH2 DUS3L DUSP14 DUSP26 DUSP5 EGR1 EIF4H EPHA10 EXOSC6 FABP5 FAM120B FAM133B FAM164B FAM57A FEM1A FLJ42220 FLJ45872 FNTB GPATCH3 GPN1 GPR45 GRIN2A GRPEL1 GRWD1 GSTM4 HK2 ID1 IER2 IFRD2 IL27RA IMP4 IPO4 ISG20L2 ITFG2 KCTD15 KEAP1 KIAA0485 KIAA0664 KIAA0892 KLHL21 KRT37 LAMP1 LANCL2 LDLRAD1 LOC100130557 LOC100131144 LOC100132086 LOC286299 LOC401620 LOC645317 LSG1 MEMO1 MEPCE METTL1 METTL7B MRM1 MRPL15 MRPS7 MYBBP1A NAB2 NAT9 NCLN NEB NFKBIB NHEDC2 NMI NOL6 NOM1 NUP50 OR10G7 OR7D4 OTOR P2RX6 PAK1IP1 PANX1 PATL1 PFAS PLD6 POLE3 POLR1A POLR1B POLR1C POLR1E POLR3E POLR3K PPIF PPP1R15A PQBP1 PROK2 PRR10 PUS1 PWP2 RBM19 REXO4 RPL18 RRP1 RRP12 RRP9 SAFB SAFB2 SART1 SCFD2 SERTAD1 SFRS2 SIGMAR1 SIVA1 SLC25A19 SLC39A8 SLC3A2 SLC5A6 SMCR8 SMG5 SMOX SPNS1 SRM SRP9 STAR SVEP1 TARBP2 TAS2R39 TDO2 THOC6 TIMM13 TMEM109 TMEM115 TMEM208 TNC TNFAIP6 TNPO2 TOMM40 TPBG TRMT1 TRMT61A TRMU TSR1 TSR2 TSSK4 USE1 USP31 UTS2 VIPR2 WDR6 WDR74 YTHDF2 ZCCHC12 ZFP36L2 ZIC5 ZNF259 ZNF286A ZNF286B

Changes in the proteomic profiles of mouse brain after infection with cyst-forming Toxoplasma gondii. Zhou et al, 2013

Modified protein expression: APOE ARHGDIA ARL2 ATP5A1 ATP6VLB1 C20ORF27 CALR CLIC1 COPS4 COPS6 CYB5A EIF1AX ENOPH1 ERLIN2 FTH1 GH1 GLOD4 GNAO1 HNRNPC HSP90B1 LMNB1 NAPB NECAB2 NFU1 OTUB1 P4HB PACSIN1 PHB PITHD1 PPP2CB PSME3 RAP1GDS1 SERPINB6 SH3GLB2 SIRT2 SRPK3 STOML2 TTC9 TUBA1C TUBB2A UCHL1 VBP1

A Novel High Throughput Invasion Screen Identifies Host Actin Regulators Required for Efficient Cell Entry by Toxoplasma gondii Gaji et al, 2013

Genes that showed significant differences in T.Gondii invasion upon gene silencing (siRNA) and did not produce substantial host cell death (>90% viability). ABCC8 ACE ACP1 ACR ADAM2 ADAM20 ADAM21 ADAM29 ADAMTS17 ADAMTS20 ADAMTS4 ADAMTS5 ADAMTS7 ADAMTSL1 ADRB2 ALPP ANAPC11 ARIH1 ASB1 ASB15 ASB2 ASPRV1 ATG4C AURKC BARD1 BAZ1B BFAR BIRC4 BIRC6 BMI1 BMPR2 BRPF1 BRSK1 C1RL C9ORF3 CACNA2D3 CALM3 CAMK4 CAPN9 CASP4 CCR8 CDC25A CDC25C CDKL2 CDKN2C CGRRF1 CHEK2 CHKA CHRNA7 CLCN2 CLCN6 CLPX CNDP2 CNGA1 CORIN CPE CPN1 CR1 CSNK1A1L CTSF CTSK CTSZ DHH DLG1 DPEP3 DPF2 DUSP1 DUSP11 DUSP6 DUSP7 ECEL1 EEA1 EEF2K EFNB3 EIF2AK3 EPHA6 EPHB4 ESSPL FAP FBXL15 FBXL16 FBXL18 FBXL5 FBXO33 FBXO6 FBXW5 FSD1L FXYD4 FXYD6 FYN G2E3 G6PC GABRB1 GLRA2 GPR146 GRIA4 GRIK2 GRIN2B GRP58 GZMB GZMH HABP2 HBXAP HECW2 HERC4 HTR3A HTR6 IBRDC1 IHH IKBKE IKBKG IMP5 INPP1 INPP5B INPP5D INTS12 IPMK IRAK1 ITPKC ITPR1 JARID1C JHDM1D KCNA4 KCNC4 KCNH3 KCNK9 KEL KLK12 KLK4 KRTAP5-9 LAK LMLN LMO6 LOC644006 LONRF3 LRSAM1 MAP2K5 MAPK10 MAPK7 MAPKAPK2 MARCH5 MARCH6 MARCH9 MARK3 MARK4 MC4R MEFV MEP1A MEP1B METAP1 MLL3 MMP12 MMP14 MMP15 MMP17 MMP7 MNAT1 MST4 MTMR2 MTMR3 MTMR4 MTMR9 MUL1 MUSK MYLIP NAGK NT5C1B NUDT15 NUDT9 OMA1 P2RY2 PCGF5 PCSK1 PDC PDZRN3 PFKFB2 PFKM PGK1 PHEX PHF16 PHF5A PHPT1 PIK3C2B PIK3C3 PP2D1 PPAP2A PPEF1 PPIL2 PPM1M PPP1R2 PPP1R3D PPP3CB PPP6C PRICKLE2 PRKCB1 PROZ PRPF19 PRSS35 PRSS36 PSMB5 PSMB8 PTK9L PTP4A1 PTP4A2 PTPRB PTPRE PTPRF PTPRM PTPRO PTPRR PYCS RAB40C RBBP6 RBCK1 RBX1 RCE1 RFWD3 RHBDL2 RKHD1 RKHD2 RKHD3 RNF103 RNF12 RNF121 RNF125 RNF126 RNF130 RNF190 RNF208 RNF214 RNF222 RNF25 RNF26 RNF34 RNF43 RNF44 SCN3B SEC11L1 SEC11L3 SENP3 SENP7 SENP8 SH3MD2 SHH SNRK SOCS7 STK19 STYK1 TBK1 TESSP2 TLL1 TLL2 TMEM11 TMPRSS6 TNFRSF25 TNIK TOPK TPSG1 TPTE TPTE2 TRAF4 TRIM10 TRIM11 TRIM25 TRIM28 TRIM31 TRIM41 TRIM42 TRIM46 TRIM55 TRIM59 TRIM6 TRIM60 TRIM69 TRIM72 TRPC6 TYSND1 UBE1L2 UBE2B UBE2D2 UBLCP1 UBOX5 UCHL5 UHRF1 ULK3 UQCRC1 USP28 USP31 USP33 USP48 USP52 USP6 USP7 VIPR1 VPS8 XCR1 ZNF294 ZNF547 ZNF592 ZNRF1

Diseases associated with Toxoplasma Gondii

  • Toxoplasmosis has frequently been implicated in schizophrenia and psychosis : Reviewed in Yolken et al, 2009 Other refs
  • Seropositivity has been associated with Bipolar disorder Hamdani et al, 2012
  • Brain cancer risk is elevated in countries with a high incidence of Toxoplasmosis Thomas et al, 2011
  • High T.Gondii seropositivity has been reported in Alzheimer's disease Kusbeci et al, 2011
  • High titres of T.Gondii seropositivity have been associated withy anxiety and depression during pregnancy Groer et al, 2011
  • Suicide attempts in psychiatric patients with mood disorders have been associated with T.Gondii seropositivity Arling et al, 2009
  • Mollaret meningitis may be caused by cerebral T.Gondii reactivation Prandota, 2009 as well as migraine with opened foramen ovale Prandota, 2010
  • High seropositivity to T.Gondii has been reported in Parkinson's disease Miman et al, 2010
  • Toxoplasmosis may contribute to the development of autoimmune diseases including anti-phospholipid syndrome , cryoglobulinemia, ANCA-associated vasculitides, autoimmune thyroid disease, systemic sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis Shapira et al, 2012
  • Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii, Helicobacter pylori, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, alone or in varying permutations have been observed in primary biliary cirrhosis Shapira et al, 2012
  • Ocular toxoplasmosis: a leading cause of infectious posterior uveitis Vasconcelos-Santos et al, 2012.
  • T.Gondii antbodies have been associated with irritable bowel syndrome Lidar et al, 2009

Infectious Diseases / Bacteria / Viruses news headlines provided courtesy of Medical News Today.

 

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Google books Toxoplasma Gondii: The Model Apicomplexan : Perspectives and Methods Louis M. Weiss, Kami Kim - 2007

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Last update: June 17, 2014