Multiple sclerosis risk

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Environmental risk factors and medical conditions associated with Multiple Sclerosis

Publications related to this page:

Epstein-Barr and other viral mimicry of autoantigens, myelin and vitamin D-related proteins and of EIF2B, the cause of vanishing white matter disease: massive mimicry of multiple sclerosis relevant proteins by the Synechococcus phage Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2012 Feb;34(1):21-35..

Toxoplasmosis and polygenic diseases: Extensive T.Gondii host/pathogen interactome enrichment in nine psychiatric or neurological disorders J.Pathogens, 2012

Susceptibility genes are enriched in those of the HSV-1/host interactome in psychiatric and neurological disorders Pathogens and disease, 2013.

Ongoing clinical trails, worldwide, can be interrogated at ClinicalTrials.Gov a service of the US National Institutes of Health :

Epidemiology at Multiple sclerosis International federation

VIRUSES AND MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS

National Multiple Sclerosis Society Multiple Sclerosis Association of America Multiple Sclerosis International Federation Cochrane reviews on treatment Genes implicated (MSGENE) Multiple Sclerosis Discovery Forum

Vitamin D and MS Pubmed

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Risk factors do not cause the disease by themselves; for example millions are infected with the Epstein-Barr virus and not all develop multiple sclerosis. However they might work together with other risk factors and with genes, and these effects might be additive, or perhaps cancel each other out. Similarly, protective factors might be interdependent, or might not work under certain conditions. However, some of these factors, for example diet or vitamins, are accessible or avoidable, and it may be appropriate to avoid the bad and favour the good.

KEGG pathway analysis of over 300 multiple sclerosis susceptibility genes -(immune networks, pathogen defence and pathogen entry pathways.)

Papers related to this page:

Genome.gov GWAS studies

ACP5 AHI1 ASAP1 BACH2 BATF C16orf47 C1GALT1 C1orf125 C20orf46 CBLB CBLN2 CD6 CD40 CD58 CD86 CENPC1 CLEC16A CLECL1 CSMD1 CUEDC1 CXCR4 CXCR5 CYP24A1 CYP27B1 DBC1 DDAH1 DDEF1 DDEF2 DKKL1 DLEU1 HLA-DQA1 EN1 EOMES EXTL2 FLJ11017 FLJ16641 FLJ34870 FOXG1B FUT8 GPC5 GPR65 HHEX HLA-A HLA-B HLA-DQB1 HLA-DRA HLA-DRB HLA-DRB1 IL12A IL12B IL2RA IL7R IL7RA IL22RA2 IRF8 JARID2 KCNB2 KIAA0350 KIF1B LOC100289506 LOC132321 MALT1 MAMSTR MANBA MAPK1 MERTK MET METTL1 MGC13125 MGC45800 MLANA MMEL1 MPHOSPH9 MPV17L2 MYB MYC MYNN NDFIP1 NFKBIZ NLRP11 ODF3B PDZRN4 PLEK POPDC3 PTGER4 PTPRK PVR PVT1 RAB38 RELN RFK RGS14 RPL5 RPS6KB1 SAE1 SGCD SH3GL2 SLC15A2 SLC25A36 SLC30A7 SOX8 SP140 STAT3 SUMF1 SYK TAGAP TCF7 TNFSF14 TNFRSF1A TRIM2 VAV2 WDR7 YWHAG ZBTB46 ZFP36L1 ZIC1 ZMIZ1 ZNF433 ZNF767 AGBL2
BCL10 C10orf55 CARD11 CCR4 CDH3 CENPO CLEC16A CTSH CXCR5 DDAH1 ELMO1 EPS15L1 FCRL1 FLJ16341 FOXP1 IKZF1 IKZF3 IQGAP1 JAZF1 LTBR MAF MAPK3 MIR548AN NDFIP1 NPEPPS PHGDH PLEKHG5 PRDX5 PXT1 RGS14 RMI2 SLAMF7 SLC2A4RG SLC44A2 SLC9A8 STAT4 TCF7 TET2 TRAF3 TREH WWOX

Pre GWAS and other: Mostly from MsGene developed by the Max Planck Institute for molecular genetics, Berlin; Johanes Gutenberg University, Mainz, and the Alzheimer Research forum See also The Genetic Association database at NIH ... Genotator at Harvard University and HUGE navigator
ACE ADAMTS14 AGAP2 AGER AGT ALK ANKRD55 APOC1 APOC2 APOE ARSA ATG10 ATP6 ATP7B ATXN2 B3GALT5 BCL2 BDNF BTG1 BTLA BTNL2 C10orf27 C19orf48 C4A C5 C6orf10 C7 CASP8 CASP9 CAV1 CCL1 CCL11 CCL13 CCL14 CCL15 CCL2 CCL3 CCL5 CCL7 CCR2 CCR5 CD14 CD1A CD1E CD207 CD226 CD24 CD28 CD4 CD46 CD48 CDC37 CEP192 CHUK CIITA CNR1 CNTF CNTNAP2 CRHR1 CRYAB CTLA4 CTSS CXCL10 CXCL12 CYP21A2 CYTB DCC DCDC2 DEXI DHCR7 DLG3 DMD DQB1*02 DQB1*03 DRB1*03 EBF1 EIF2AK2 ERAP1 ERBB3 ESR1 EVI5 FAM164A FAM20A FAM69A FAS FASLG FBXO39 FCGR2A FCGR3B FCRL3 FDX1L FXYD2 GABRA3 GAP43 GHSR GIPR GLO1 GPD1L GRN GSK3B GSTM1 GSTM3 GSTP1 GSTT1 GTF2H4 H6PD HEATR7B2 HFE HLA-C2 HLA-DQA1 HS3ST3B1 ICAM1 ICOS IFI30 IFIH1 IFIT1 IFNA17 IFNA2 IFNAR1 IFNAR2 IFNB IFNG IFNGR2 IGH@ IGSF23 IL10 IL12B IL1B IL1RN IL2 IL21 IL21R IL22RA2 IL23R IL2RB IL4 IL4R IL5RA IL6 IL7 IL8 INPP5A IRF1 IRF5 ITGAM JAG1 KANK1 KCNC2 KCNH7 KIF21B KIF5A KIR2DL1 KIR2DL2 KIR2DL3 KIR2DL5 KIR2DS1 KIR2DS2 KIR3DL1 KIR3DS1 KLC1 KLRB1 LAG3 LILRA3 LOC340094 LPCAT3 LRFN3 LRP5 LST1 LTA LY6G6D MBP MC1R MEFV MERTK MICB MIF MMEL1 MMP12 MMP2 MMP3 MMP9 MOG MPO MT-DLOOP MTHFR MT-L2 MT-ND1 MT-ND2 MT-ND3 MT-ND4 MT-ND5 MT-TT MX1 NCOR1 NDUFS5 NDUFS7 NFKBIA NFKBIL1 NGF NIPA1 NOD2 NOS2 NOS3 NOTCH4 NQO1 NR3C1 OAS1 OLIG3 OR2T2 OR4A47 OS9 P2RX7 PDCD1 PDE4B PLA2G7 PLAT PLCB4 PLCL1 PNMT PNPLA1 PON1 POU2AF1 PPARG PRF1 PRKCA PRM1 PRM2 PSMB8 PSMB9 PSORS1C1 PTAFR PTGS2 PTPN2 PTPRC RAC2 RALGAPA1 RETN RGMA RGS1 RMI2 RTN2 RYR3 SCGB1A1 SCIN SELE SELPLG SERPINE1 SH2B3 SHD2A SIPA1L3 SLC11A1 SLC25A27 SLC35C1 SLC4A5 SMARCD2 SOCS1 SP2 SPAST SPP1 ST7L ST8SIA1 STAB2 STAT1 STK31 SYN3 TAC1 TAP2 TEKT3 TGFB1 THSD7A TMEM39A TMEM98 TNF TNFRSF10A TNFRSF10B TNFSF10 TOMM40 TRB@ TRD@ TYK2 UCP2 VAV1 VDR WDR36 WDYHV1 ZC3HAV1 ZGPAT ZNF283 ZNF45 ZNF532 ZNRD1-AS1

Epistasis

Need KEGG mapping GRIN2A OPN TBC1D2 HLA-G CX3CR1 SIRT4 HDAC11 .HDAC9 SLC40A1 . HAMP PLD4 DPP6 HMOX1 CBS RFC1 IL18

Infectious agents NCBI free book Brogden KA, Guthmiller JM, editors. Polymicrobial Diseases. Washington (DC): ASM Press; 2002.Other NCBI free books Review The role of pathogens in multiple sclerosis Libbey et al, 2013

Relapse has been reported following infection with:-

Demyelinating viruses and related diseases

Protective parasitic pathogens

Sunlight and Vitamin D
  • Low ultraviolet exposure (sunlight) is associated with increased risk: UV is essential for Vitamin D synthesis Beretich and Beretich 2009 See alo Orton et al, 2011
  • This relates to the correlation of MS with higher latitudes (away from the equator) feed
  • Vitamin D may improve or even prevent Multiple Sclerosis Cantorna, 2008
  • In the USA new lesions are higher in March-August than during the rest of the year, and correlate with regional climate data, in particular solar radiation Meier et al, 2010
  • In Bosnia and Herzegovina MS was more prevalent in the municipalities with colder climate and more winter precipitation and less prevalent in the warmer coastal region without winter precipitation Klupka-Saric and Galic 2010.
  • See Lucas et al, 2011 forcombined and separate effects of sunlight and vitamin D

 

Dietary factors

Multiple sclerosis clusters

  • A cluster of 30-40 cases in Galion, Ohio was possibly related to heavy metal contaminants (mainly cadmium and chromium) in river water and sewage Ingalls, 1989
  • A cluster was observed in DePue, Illinois, possibly related to heavy metal soil contamination (Zinc) Schiffer et al, 2001
  • A cluster focus was oberved in Henribourg, Saskatchewan, with no identified cause Hader et al, 1990

Autoantigens

Drugs and treatments

Association with other diseases Others

The geographical distribution of Multiple sclerosis (from Wikipedia user Lokal_profil)

Multiple Sclerosis news headlines provided courtesy of Medical News Today.

 

 

 

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