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Helicobacter pylori MLST Databases .. J.Craig Venter Helicobacter pylori 26695 Genome Page ...NHRI H.Pylori interactome (within H.Pylori) .. PATRIC pathosystems resource integration center .. Wikipedia .. The Helicobacter foundation founded by Prof. Barry J. Marshall .. Helicobacter pylori Physiology and Genetics Eds: Harry LT Mobley, George L Mendz, and Stuart L Hazell. (Online open access Ebook) .. European Helicobacter study group Blood group antigen mutation database Powered by  NextBio

Host genes and proteins known to interact with Helicobacter pylori proteins: KEGG pathway analysis of thie interactome can be found here

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If you know of other interactions, (or corrections) please with Pubmed ID, gene symbol/accession number and viral interacting protein. Thank you. The email is encrypted and secure.

Figure Attribution: By user:Y_tambe (Y_tambe's file) [GFDL, CC-BY-SA-3.0 or CC-BY-SA-2.5-2.0-1.0], via Wikimedia Commons

H pylori virulence factors en

Components of Helicobacter pylori with biological activity: Several of these can have direct effects on host metabolic processes within the cell.

  • AGA aspartylglucosaminidase ( a helicobacter enzyme) produces ammonia and aspartate or glutamate from asparagine Leduc et al, 2010
  • A helicobacter aldo keto reductase reduces aldehyde substrates and is blocked by sodium valproate Cornally et al, 2008
  • Catalase a helicobacter enzyme Newell, 1991 2 H2O2 --> 2 H2O + O2
  • GGT1 gamma-glutamyltransferase 1 (a helicobacter enzyme) causes gastric epithelial cell death via glutathione depletion Flahou et al, 2011 Helicobacter GGT1 produces ammonia and aspartate or glutamate from glutamine Leduc et al, 2010
  • H Pylori expresses a cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (cinnamyl alcohol + NADP+ = cinnamaldehyde + NADPH + H+) capable of catalysing the dismutation of benzaldehyde to benzyl alcohol and benzoic acid and of reducing aldehyde concentrations in the cell Mee et al, 2005
  • Hydrogenase H2 + Aox --> 2H+ + Ared (1) and 2H+ + Dred --> H2 + Dox (2)
  • Outer membrane protein phospholipase A: OMPLA catalyzes the hydrolysis of acyl ester bonds in phospholipids to yield lysophospholipids (phosphatidylethanolamine , lysophosphatidylethanolamine) and free fatty acids (EC 3.1.1.32) Tannaes et al, 2001
  • Lipase: The bacterium possesses a lipase with the characteristics of a small, cell-bound carboxylesterase (EC 3.1.1.1) that is active mostly with short-chain substrates (acetate and butyrate): This enzyme could be involved in degradation of diacylglycerols and other lipids taken up by the bacterium after their release due to the activity of H. pylori extracellular phospholipases or host hydrolases produced during early inflammation Ruiz et al, 2007
  • Acetone carboxylase: The bacterial enzyme catalyzes the conversion of acetone to acetoacetate: H. pylori encounters significant levels of acetone in the stomach which it could use as a potential electron donor for microaerobic respiration Brahmachary et al, 2008.
  • Oxidase: any enzyme that catalyzes an oxidation-reduction reaction involving molecular oxygen (O2) as the electron acceptor. Oxygen is reduced to water (H2O) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).
  • Superoxide dismutase Spiegelhalder et al, 1993
  • Urease Newell, 1991 catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea into carbon dioxide and ammonia
    • (NH2)2CO + H2O --> CO2 + 2NH3
    • H.Pylori Urease activates platelets inducing aggregation and ATP secretion Wassermann et al, 2010
  • H.Pylori expresses an asparaginase converting extracellular asparagine to aspartate: This can exert toxic effects to host cells via asparagine deprivation Shibayama et al, 2011
  • H.Pylori expresses a Peptidoglycan deacetlyase that counteracts the host immune response.Shalk et al, 2011
  • H.Pylori adsorbs a number of steroids including pregnenolone and two androgens (dehydroepiandrosterone and epiandrosterone and 3-hydroxylated oestrogens (oestrone and oestradiol). These are glucosylated and the glucosyl-steroid hormone derivatives used as membrane lipid components Hosoda et al, 2009.
  • cholesterol glucoside Hirai et al, 1995: Prolonged treatment induces cell death in the motor neuron-derived NSC34 cell line via AKT1 phosphorylation Ly et al, 2008
  • H.Pylori and other bacteria possess a transsulfuration pathway that converts cysteine to homocysteine Kong et al, 2008
  • Host mitochondria cluster around the parasitophorous vacuole Pernas and Boothroyd, 2010
  • Peptidoglycan deacetlyase: This bacterial protein reduceds immune detection by the host and contributes to persistent infection Wang et al, 2010
  • The hp0013 H.Pylori gene codes for an enzymatic nitric oxide detoxifying system and posses nitric oxide reductase activity enabling the bacterium to defend against the antipathogenic effects of host nitric oxide Justino et al, 2012

Other interactions

  1. ABL1 c-abl oncogene 1, non-receptor tyrosine kinase binds to phosphorylated cagA Backert et al, 2010
  2. V-ATPase (composed of multiple subunits, for example ATP6V1B1, ATP6V1G1 ) Vacuolar ATPase bound to VacA Papini et al, 1996
  3. ABO ABO blood group (transferase A, alpha 1-3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase; transferase B, alpha 1-3-galactosyltransferase) : H. pylori adheres via binding of BabA adhesins to ABO/Lewis b (Leb) blood group antigens Olofsson et al, 2010
  4. ACE angiotensin I converting enzyme (peptidyl-dipeptidase A) 1: Expression regulated by infection in the gastric mucosa and microvasculature of granulation tissue Carl-McGrath et al, 2009
  5. ADAM10 H.Pylori infection results in the ectodomain shedding of E cadherin ( CDH1 ) and the hepatocyte growth factor receptor MET , mediated via ADAM10 Schirrmeister et al, 2009
  6. ALDOA aldolase A, fructose-bisphosphate: Upregulated by infection in in gastric epithelial AGS cells Lim et al, 2003
  7. ALDOC aldolase C, fructose-bisphosphate: Upregulated by infection in in gastric epithelial AGS cells Lim et al, 2003
  8. AP1 c-fos and c-jun are activated in gastric epithelial cells Meyer-ter-Vehn et al, 2000
  9. ADAM17 ADAM metallopeptidase domain 17 activated by CAGL Saha et al, 2010
  10. AGER advanced glycosylation end product-specific receptor: H.Pylori binds to rage in gastric epithelial cells Rojas et al, 2011
  11. AGMAT agmatine ureohydrolase: May supply the urea needed by H.Pylori Kim et al, 2011
  12. AHSG alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein (fetuin-alpha) Fetuin binds to H.Pylori adhesins Kobayashi et al, 1993
  13. ANXA1 and ANXA4 annexins in host cell membranes are disrupted by the bacterium resuling in an increase in LAMP2 expression Lin et al, 2012
  14. APC adenomatosis polyposis coli: CDH1, p16 (CDKN2A) and APC promoter methylation is increased in non-neoplastic gastric mucosa and decreased after H.Pylori eradication Perri et al, 2007
  15. APEX1 activated by H. pylori or reactive oxygen species in gastric epithelial cells Ding et al, 2004
  16. AREG amphiregulin: upregulated by infection in the gastric mucosa Tuccillo et al, 2002
  17. ARG1 Arginase 1: May supply the urea needed by H.Pylori Kim et al, 2011
  18. ARG2 arginase, type II and ODC: H. pylori induces macrophage polyamine production by upregulating the arginase 2 /ornithine decarboxylase metabolic pathway and increases hydrogen peroxide synthesis via spermidine oxidase PAOX .Gobert et al, 2011
  19. ARHGEF6 Rac/Cdc42 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 6 Binds to CagA Baek et al, 2007
  20. Arginine is a chemotactic signal for H.Pylori Cerda et al, 2003
  21. ATF2 activating transcription factor 2: activated by VacA in AZ-521 cells Nakayama et al, 2004
  22. ATF6 activating transcription factor 6: H.Pylori suppresses ATF6 expression in cultured gastric cells Namba et al, 2010
  23. ATM ataxia telangiectasia mutated: H.Pylori adhesion causes DNA double-strand breaks in primary and transformed murine and human epithelial and mesenchymal cells. The DNA breaks trigger a damage-signaling and repair response involving the ATM-dependent recruitment of repair factors-p53-binding protein (TP53BP1) and mediator of DNA damage checkpoint protein 1 (MDC1)-and histone H2A variant X (H2AX) phosphorylation Toiler et al, 2011.
  24. ATP4A ATPase, H+/K+ exchanging, alpha polypeptide (gastric H(+)/K(+) ATPase subunit alpha): Saha et al, 2010
  25. B3GNT5 UDP-GlcNAc:betaGal beta-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 5: H.pylori induces B3GNT5 in human gastric cell lines, affecting production of SabA ligand sialyl-Lewis x Marcos et al, 2008
  26. B4GALNT2 beta-1,4-N-acetyl-galactosaminyl transferase 2: Involved in glycan synthesis necessary for Helicobacter adhesion. Staubach et al, 2012
  27. BAD BCL2-associated agonist of cell death: Phosphorylated by infection (CagA effect) in lymphocytes Zhu et al, 2007
  28. BAK BCL2-antagonist/killer 1 activated by VacA leading to cytochrome c release and cell death Yamasaki et al, 2006
  29. BAX BCL2-associated X protein: translocation into mitochondria and CASP3, CASP7 and CASP8 activated in gastric epithelia Maeda et al, 2002
  30. BCL2 B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 : Downregulated by VacA in gastric epithelial cells via effects on STAT3 and JNK Matsumoto et al, 2011
  31. BCL2L1 BCL2-like 1: Downregulated by VacA in gastric epithelial cells via effects on STAT3 and JNK Matsumoto et al, 2011
  32. BID BH3 interacting domain death agonist: H. pylori up-regulates the expression of Bid and Bax (protein and mRNA) , and activates caspases -3 and -9 in gastric cancer cells
  33. BIRC2 baculoviral IAP repeat containing 2: H pylori induces apoptotic effects via the mitochondrial pathway involving BAX translocation, caspase 3 and 8 activation, cytochrome C release , and c-IAP1 and c-IAP2 (BIRC2, BIRC3) upregulation Maeda et al, 2002
  34. BIRC3 baculoviral IAP repeat containing 3: Maeda et al, 2002
  35. BIRC5 baculoviral IAP repeat containing 5 (survivin) downregulated by infection of gastric cells Valenzuela et al, 2010
  36. BMP2 bone morphogenetic protein 2: gastric mucosa infection increases BMP2 expression Bleuming et al, 2006
  37. C3 complement component C3 binds to H.Pylori Berstad et al, 1997nek
  38. CAMP – cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (LL37): H.Pylori resistance to antimicrobial peptides is modified by cholesterol McGee et al, 2011
  39. CAPN1 calpain 1, (mu/I) large subunit : activated via TLR2 in human gastric epithelial cells, disrupting adherens junctions O'Connor et al, 2011.
  40. CAPN8 Calpain 8 : stomach-specific M-type calpain: Calpains 8 and 9 are cooperatively involved in mucosal defense against stress-induced gastropathies Hata and Sorimachi, 2011
  41. CAPN9 Calpain 9: digestive tract-specific calpain; Hata and Sorimachi, 2011
  42. CASP3 CASP3, CASP7 and CASP8 caspases activated in gastric epithelia Maeda et al, 2002
  43. CASP7 See Maeda et al, 2002
  44. CASP8 See Maeda et al, 2002
  45. CASP9 H. pylori infection induces apoptosis and the activation of caspases -3 and -9 in gastric cancer cells Zhang et al, 2007
  46. CAV1 caveolin 1, caveolae protein, 22kDa: H. pylori activates sterol-responsive element-binding protein-1 (SREBP1) to repress transcription of the human Cav1 gene from sterol-responsive elements in the Cav1 promoter..Hitkova et al, 2013
  47. CCKBR cholecystokinin B receptor: Upregulated in gastric cells infected with H.Pylori Dickson et al, 2006
  48. CCL3 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3 (Mip-1 alpha) HP-NAP stimulates the production of CXCL8, CCL3, and CCL4 chemokines in polymorphonuclear cells Polenghi et al, 2007
  49. CCL4 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4 (Mip-1 beta) "" Polenghi et al, 2007
  50. CCL5 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5: Rantes promoter activated in infected gastric epithelial cells Kudo et al, 2005
  51. CCND1 activated in gastric cancer cells Hirata et al, 2001
  52. CD2AP CD2-associated protein bridges filamentous actin (F-actin) structures with early endosomes containing VacA Gauthier et al, 2007
  53. CD14 H. pylori lipopolysaccharide bind to CD14 Bliss et al, 1998
  54. CD18 binds to the vacuolating cytotoxin Sewald et al, 2008
  55. CD36 CD36 molecule (thrombospondin receptor): H.Pylori or P. gingivalis lipopolysaccharide-induced endothelial cell activation is mediated through TLR2. Human vascular endothelial cell activation was lipid raft-dependent and involved the formation of heterotypic receptor complexes comprising of TLR2, TLR1, CD36 and CD11b/CD18 (ITGAM/ITGB2)Triantafilou et al, 2007
  56. CD46 binds to H Pylori urease and is bactericidal Basmarke-Wehelie et al, 2011
  57. CD55 decay accelerating factor for complement (Cromer blood group) binds to H.Pylori O'Brien et al, 2006
  58. CD69 H,Pylori induces CD69 expression in mucosal lymphocytes and macrophages as well as in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and CD4(+) T cells. Mori et al, 2011
  59. CD74 molecule, major histocompatibility complex, class II invariant chain binds to urease B subunit Beswick et al, 2006
  60. CD209 CD209 molecule (DC-SIGN) a C-type lectin that binds ICAM-2,3 and various pathogens such as HIV, helicobacter, and mycobacteria Schaeffer et al, 2000
  61. CDC25C H. pylori decreases CDC25C expression in gastric epithelial cells Fehri et al, 2009
  62. CDC42 cell division cycle 42 (GTP binding protein, 25kDa): cdc42 and rac1 are activated by infection Churin et al, 2001
  63. CDH1 cadherin 1, type 1, E-cadherin (epithelial): binds to non-phosphorylated cagA Backert et al, 2010 CDH1, p16 and APC promoter methylation is increased in non-neoplastic gastric mucosa and decreased after H.Pylori eradication Perri et al, 2007 Downregulated by infection in in gastric epithelial AGS cells Lim et al, 2003
  64. CDKN1A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21, Cip1): CagA(+) H. pylori induces Akt1 phosphorylation and inhibits transcription of p21(WAF1/CIP1) and CDKN1B via the PI3K/Akt1 pathway Li et al, 2010.
  65. CDKN1B cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (p27, Kip1): See Li et al, 2010.
  66. CDKN2A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (melanoma, p16, inhibits CDK4):Promoter methylation increased by H.Pylori Alves et al, 2011
  67. CDX2 caudal type homeobox 2: Expression modified by H.Pylori infection and eradication Shiotani et al, 2007
  68. Cholesterol binds to H.Pylori Ansorg et al, 1992
  69. 7-dehydrocholesterol is toxic to H.Pylori Shimomura et al, 2013
  70. CFTR cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (ATP-binding cassette sub-family C, member 7): VacA forms a chloride channel with similar properties as CFTR Campello et al, 2002
  71. CHUK conserved helix-loop-helix ubiquitous kinase: H. pylori induces NF-kappaB activation through an intracellular signaling pathway that involves IKKalpha (CHUK) , IKKbeta (IKBKB), NIK, TRAF2, and TRAF6 Maeda et al, 2000
  72. Citric acid inhibits H.Pylori growth Zazgornik and Mittermayer, 2011
  73. COMT The COMT Val158Met polymorphism influences the severity of intestinal metaplasia in H. pylori infected older subjects Tahara et al, 2009.
  74. CPB2 carboxypeptidase B2 (plasma): gastric levels of CPB2 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 are increased in infected patients Ikeda et al, 2009
  75. CR1 complement component (3b/4b) receptor 1 (Knops blood group): Exposure of complement receptors 1 and 3 (ITGAM/ITGB2) as well as the formyl peptide receptor (FPR) in neutrophils is increased after bacterial lipopolysaccharide treatment Bylund et al, 2002.
  76. CRK v-crk sarcoma virus CT10 oncogene homolog (avian) binds to phosphorylated cagA Backert et al, 2010
  77. CRK2 binds to phosphorylated cagA Backert et al, 2010
  78. CRKL v-crk sarcoma virus CT10 oncogene homolog (avian)-like binds to phosphorylated cagA Backert et al, 2010 Suzuki et al, 2005
  79. CSK c-src tyrosine kinase: binds to phosphorylated cagA Backert et al, 2010 This interaction subsequently inhibits the effects of CSK on other Src family kinases Safari et al, 2011:
  80. CTNNB1 beta catenin activated by carcinogenic strains Franco et al, 2005
  81. CTNND1 binds to non-phosphorylated cagA Backert et al, 2010
  82. CTSZ cathepsin Z: (aka Cathepsin X): H. pylori up-regulated CTSZ via ERK1/2 signalling pathways in gastric epithelial cells , and via JNK in N87 cells Krueger et al, 2009
  83. CXCL1 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (melanoma growth stimulating activity, alpha) (Gro-alpha) CXC chemokines modulate inflammation in H. pylori gastritis Eck et al, 2000
  84. CXCR2 chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 2 : (CD182, CDw128b, CMKAR2, IL8R2, IL8RA, IL8RB): Inhibition abolishes HpHSP60-induced tube formation (angiogenesis) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells Lin et al, 2010.
  85. CYBB cytochrome b-245, beta polypeptide: Expression increased by infection in gastric epithelial cells Lo et al, 2009
  86. CYCS cytochrome c, somatic: H pylori induces apoptotic effects via the mitochondrial pathway involving BAX translocation, caspase 3 and 8 activation, cytochrome C release , and c-IAP1 and c-IAP2 (BIRC2, BIRC3) upregulation Maeda et al, 2002
  87. DDIT3 DNA-damage-inducible transcript 3: The unfolded protein response is activated in H.Pylori related cancer involving XBP1, HSPA5 and CHOP (DDIT3) Baird et al, 2013.
  88. DEFA1 defensin, alpha 1: H. pylori induces alpha-defensin release from granulocytes Kocsis et al, 2009
  89. DEFA3 defensin, alpha 3, neutrophil-specific: H. pylori induces alpha-defensin release from granulocytes Kocsis et al, 2009
  90. DEFA5 defensin, alpha 5, Paneth cell-specific : Kills H.Pylori Tanabe et al,2008
  91. DEFA6 defensin, alpha 6, Paneth cell-specific : Kills H.Pylori Tanabe et al,2008
  92. DEFB1defensin, beta 1: Genotypes modify infection related gastritis Kocsis et al, 2009
  93. DEFB4A – defensin, beta 4A: increased expression in infected gastric human biopsy samples Nuding et al, 2013
  94. DEFB103B – defensin, beta 103B: CagA abrogates DEFB103B expression via inactivation of EGFR signaling Bauer et al, 2012.
  95. DEFB104A defensin, beta 104A (hBD-4) : increased by gastric infection Otte et al, 2009
  96. Diethyl phthalate is a chemotactic factor secreted by H.pylori. Keire et al, 2001
  97. DLD dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase: H.Pylori induces aberrant methylation of LDH, DLD and RanGAP Xu et al, 2012
  98. DMBT1 deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 binds to H.Pylori and several other pathogens Ligtenburg et al, 2007
  99. DNM1L dynamin 1-like : VacA induces mitochondrial network fragmentation via the mitochondrial recruitment and activation of dynamin-related protein 1 Jain et al, 2011
  100. DNMT3B DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 3 beta: expression enhanced by CagA (stomach) Hayashi et al, 2012
  101. DVL2 dishevelled, dsh homolog 2 (Drosophila) : H. pylori-induces nuclear accumulation and activation of beta-catenin in gastric epithelial NCI-N87 cells and lef/tcf activation , and expression of Wnt target genes was reduced in stable knockdown cell lines deficient for LRP6, Dvl2 or Dvl3 Gnad et al, 2010.
  102. DVL3 dishevelled, dsh homolog 3 (Drosophila): See Gnad et al, 2010.
  103. E2F1 E2F transcription factor 1: H.Pylori VacA reverses the E.Coli LPS-induced down-regulation of E2F1 expression in dendritic cells Kim et al, 2011
  104. EGF Mucosal injury and H. pylori infection increase EGF protein levels and EGFR mRNA expression in the antral mucosa Wong et al, 2001
  105. EGFR epidermal growth factor receptor : VacA may enter cells via EGFR endocytosis Seto et al, 1998
  106. EGR1 early growth response 1: activated in gastric epithelial cells Abdel-Latif et al, 2004
  107. ETV6 ets variant 6 (TEL oncogene) binds to Helicobacter Cysteine-Rich Protein C Roschitzki et al, 2011
  108. ERBB2 v-erb-b2 erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2, neuro/glioblastoma derived oncogene homolog (avian): Persistent infection associated with urease activity and p53, c-erbB-2 and Ki-67 expression in gastric mucosa Brajsa et al, 2006
  109. EZH2 enhancer of zeste homolog 2: expression enhanced by CagA (stomach) Hayashi et al, 2012
  110. EZR ezrin knockdown suppresses invasion of gastric cancer cells Fan et al, 2011
  111. F2R coagulation factor II (thrombin) receptor H pylori levels are significantly reduced in F2R (-/-) and increased in F2RL1 (-/-) mice
  112. F2RL1 coagulation factor II (thrombin) receptor-like 1: IL8 expression in gastric epithelial cells is mediated via protease-activated receptor 2 (F2RL1) Kajikawa et al, 2007
  113. F11R F11 receptor (CD321, JAM, JAM1, JAMA, JCAM, KAT, PAM-1) Associates with CagA Amieva et al, 2003
  114. FASL activated in neutrophils Kim et al, 2000
  115. FETUB Fetuin B Fetuin binds to H.Pylori adhesins Kobayashi et al, 1993
  116. Free fatty acids, glycerol mono-oleate and lysophosphatidylcholine are produced by the action of H. pylori lipase and phospholipase A enzymes Slomiany et al, 1992
  117. FUT3 fucosyltransferase 3 (galactoside 3(4)-L-fucosyltransferase, Lewis blood group) regulates the synthesis of Lewis antigens Soejima et al, 2009
  118. FUT4 fucosyltransferase 4 (alpha (1,3) fucosyltransferase, myeloid-specific):binds to H.Pylori SabA Magalhães and Reis 2010
  119. FN1 fibronectin 1 Vac A binds to fibronectin Hennig et al, 2005
  120. FOS FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog: H. pylori infection increases in the expression of c-Jun, JunB, JunD, Fra-1, and c-Fos in gastric epithelial cells Ding et al, 2008
  121. FOSL1 FOS-like antigen 1 (Fra-1) See Ding et al, 2008
  122. FOXM1 forkhead box M1: H. pylori and CagA inhibit the expression of P27Kip1 (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B, CDKN1B) and promote cell proliferation by upregulating FoxM1 in gastric epithelial cells Feng et al, 2013.
  123. FOXO1 forkhead box O1: activated via AKT1 and PIK3R1 following infectionn, regulating gastric IL8 release Tabassam et al, 2012
  124. FOXO3A forkhead box O3 : activated via AKT1 and PIK3R1 following infection, regulating gastric IL8 release Tabassam et al, 2012
  125. FPR2 formyl peptide receptor 2 (ex FPRL1) activated by H.Pylori protein Hp(2–20) Betten et al, 2001
  126. FPR3 formyl peptide receptor 3 activated by H.Pylori protein Hp(2–20) (ex FPRL2) Betten et al, 2001
  127. H.Pylori fur protein is an iron binding transcription factor that regulates bacterial iron metabolism Dian et al, 2011
  128. FUCA2 fucosidase, alpha-L- 2, plasma essential for bacterial adhesion Lieu et al, 2009
  129. FUT2 fucosyltransferase 2 (secretor status included) : H.Pylori adhesion is impaired in FUT2 knockout mice Magalhães et al, 2009
  130. FUT7 fucosyltransferase 7 (alpha (1,3) fucosyltransferase) Involved in the synthesis of Lewis X antigens that serve as H.Pylori receptors Mahdavi et al, 2002
  131. FYN FYN oncogene related to SRC, FGR, YES: CagA localizes at the inner membrane of infected cells and is phosphorylated by the non-receptor tyrosine kinases c-Src, Fyn, Lyn and Yes of the Src family kinases Wessler et al, 2011
  132. G3BP1 GTPase activating protein (SH3 domain) binding protein 1: Part of the H.Pylori induced phosphoproteome Knauer et al, 2008
  133. Gangliosides GM1, GM2, GM3, GD1a, GD1b, GD3 and GT1b bind to VacA Wada et al, 2010
  134. gangliotetraosylceramide Helicobacter pylori binds to phosphatidylethanolamine and gangliotetraosylceramideGold et al, 1993
  135. GAST Direct contact of live H. pylori bacteria with human cells induces gastrin expression Tucker et al, 2010]
  136. GHRH ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide : ghrelin limits H. pylori-induced gastric mucosal inflammatory responses via enhancement in cSrc activation, elicited by its S-nitrosylation Slomiany and Slomiany, 2011
  137. GIT1 G protein-coupled receptor kinase interacting ArfGAP 1: CagA associate with tyrosine-phosphorylated GIT1 Asahi et al, 2003
  138. GLI1 GLI family zinc finger 1: Overexpressed in infected gastric cancer tissues Kim et al, 2010
  139. Glutamine metabolised by the helicobacter GGT1 Shibayama et al, 2007
  140. Glutathione metabolised by helicobacter GGT1 Flahou et al, 2011
  141. GNB2L1 guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 2-like (rack1) binds to VacA Hennig et al, 2001
  142. GRB2 binds to phosphorylated cagA Backert et al, 2010
  143. GRIN1 glutamate receptor, ionotropic, N-methyl D-aspartate 1 : H.Pylori activates gastric epithelial NMDA receptors which play a role in cytotoxicity: Blocked by MK-801 and ifenprodil (GRIN2B antagonist) Seo et al, 2011 GRIN1, GRIN2A, GRIN2C, GRIN2D, GRIN3A and GRIN3B are expressed in the stomach with little GRIN2B Watanabe et al, 2008 However GRIN2B expression is reactivated in gastric cancer Liu et al, 2007
  144. GRIN2A glutamate receptor, ionotropic, N-methyl D-aspartate 2A: see GRIN1
  145. GRIN2B glutamate receptor, ionotropic, N-methyl D-aspartate 2B: see GRIN1
  146. GRIN2C glutamate receptor, ionotropic, N-methyl D-aspartate 2C: see GRIN1
  147. GRIN2D glutamate receptor, ionotropic, N-methyl D-aspartate 2D see GRIN1
  148. GRIN3A glutamate receptor, ionotropic, N-methyl-D-aspartate 3A see GRIN1
  149. GRIN3B glutamate receptor, ionotropic, N-methyl-D-aspartate 3B See GRIN1
  150. GRN Granulin (PC cell-derived growth factor; acrogranin; granulin-epithelin; granulins; proepithelin; progranulin) Induced by mucosal infection Wex et al, 2011
  151. GP1BA glycoprotein Ib (platelet), alpha polypeptide : H. pylori-bound VWF interacts with GPIb Byrne et al, 2003
  152. GSK3B glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta: H.Pylori suppresses GSK3B activity to promote beta catenin activity Sokolova et al, 2008
  153. H2AFX H2A histone family, member X : H.Pylori adhesion causes DNA double-strand breaks in primary and transformed murine and human epithelial and mesenchymal cells. The DNA breaks trigger a damage-signaling and repair response involving the ATM-dependent recruitment of TP53BP1 and MDC1-and H2AFX phosphorylation Toiler et al, 2011.
  154. HBA1 hemoglobin, alpha 1: Infection associated with higher levels of glycated haemoglobin Chen and Blaser, 2012
  155. HBEGF heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor: induced by infection via gastrin and its receptor Dickson et al, 2006
  156. HDC histidine decarboxylase : H.Pylori activates the Histidine decarboxylase promoter (the rate-limiting enzyme for histamine production) in gastric epithelial cells Wessler et al, 2000
  157. HDGF Hepatoma-derived growth factor: Part of the H.Pylori induced phosphoproteome Knauer et al, 2008
  158. Heparan sulphate binds to VacA Utt et al, 2001
  159. HEXB hexosaminidase B (beta polypeptide): The bacterial neutrrophil activating protein induces beta-hexosaminidase release and interleukin-6 production in peritoneal mast cells Montemurro et al, 2002
  160. HIF1A hypoxia inducible factor 1, alpha subunit (basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor) : expression increased in H. pylori-infected gastric epithelia Bhattacharyya et al, 2010
  161. HMGB1 high mobility group box 1: Part of the H.Pylori induced phosphoproteome Knauer et al, 2008
  162. HMOX1 heme oxygenase (decycling) 1L: H. pylori decreases NO-induced NFKB1, activation, inhibiting HO-1 expression (mediated via CagA activation of HSF1) Gobert et al, 2011.
  163. HNRNPK heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K: Part of the H.Pylori induced phosphoproteome Knauer et al, 2008
  164. HNRNPU heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U (scaffold attachment factor A) binds to Helicobacter Cysteine-Rich Protein C Roschitzki et al, 2011
  165. HSF1 : heat shock transcription factor 1: activated by CagA Gobert et al, 2011.
  166. HRH2 histamine receptor H2: A VacA+ supernatant from H.pylori culture reduces prostaglandin E2 -stimulated duodenal mucosal HCO3- secretion, an effect blocked by HRH2 antagonism Tuo et al, 2009
  167. HRH3 histamine receptor H3: H.Pylori secretes an H3 receptor agonist, N alpha-methylhistamine Beales and Calam, 1998
  168. HSPA5 heat shock 70kDa protein 5 (glucose-regulated protein, 78kDa): H.Pylori suppresses hspa5 expression in cultured gastric cells Namba et al, 2010
  169. HSPA8 heat shock 70kDa protein 8 (HSc71) binds to Helicobacter Cysteine-Rich Protein C Roschitzki et al, 2011
  170. HSP90AB1 heat shock protein 90kDa alpha (cytosolic), class B member 1 binds to Helicobacter Cysteine-Rich Protein C Roschitzki et al, 2011
  171. HYOU1 hypoxia up-regulated 1: H.Pylori suppresses orp150 expression in cultured gastric cells Namba et al, 2010
  172. IFIH1 interferon induced with helicase C domain 1: (MDA5) Expression increased in human gastric mucosa infected with Helicobacter pylori . Tatsuka et al, 2012
  173. IFNG interferon, gamma: H.Pylori disrupts STAT1-mediated IFNG signal transduction in epithelial cells Mitchell et al, 2004.
  174. IGF1 : insulin-like growth factor 1 (somatomedin C): Serum IGF-I and IGF-II concentrations are lower in patients with H. pylori infection : Increased IGFBP1 and IGFBP2, and decreased level of IGFBP3 were also observed .Baricevic et al, 2004
  175. IGF2 insulin-like growth factor 2 (somatomedin A) See Baricevic et al, 2004
  176. IGFBP1 insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1: See Baricevic et al, 2004
  177. IGFBP2 insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2, 36kDa: See Baricevic et al, 2004
  178. IGFBP3 insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3: See Baricevic et al, 2004
  179. IHH H.Pylori induces indian hedgehog expression in stomach and intestinal epithelial cells Kato and Kato, 2006
  180. IKBKB inhibitor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells, kinase beta H. pylori transiently induces binding of IKKß to c-Src kinase Rieke et al, 2011
  181. IKBKE inhibitor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells, kinase epsilon
  182. IKBKG inhibitor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells, kinase gamma Bacterial Hsp90 associates with IKK-alpha and IKK gamma in MKN-45 cells Ko et al, 2011
  183. IL1B H.Pylori infaction activates a mucosal inflammatory response by mononuclear cells and neutrophils increasing the expression of cytokines IL1B, IL-6, IL8, and TNF Sharma et al, 1995.
  184. IL1R1 interleukin 1 receptor, type I : Phosphorylated by H.Pylori infection Lapointe at al, 2010
  185. IL2 interleukin 2: VacA inhibits cell proliferation by interfering with the T-cell receptor/interleukin-2 (IL-2) signaling pathway via calcineurin Müller et al, 2011
  186. IL2RA interleukin 2 receptor, alpha Helicobacter urease induces monocyte expression of interleukin 2 receptors Harris et al, 1996
  187. IL2RB interleukin 2 receptor, beta chain Helicobacter urease induces monocyte expression of interleukin 2 receptors Harris et al, 1996
  188. IL6 Interleukin 6: H.Pylori infaction activates a mucosal inflammatory response by mononuclear cells and neutrophils increasing the expression of cytokines IL1B, IL-6, IL8, and TNF Sharma et al, 1995.
  189. IL8 Interleukin 8: VacA activates an IL-8 promoter containing an NF-IL-6 element Hisatsune et al, 2008
  190. IL12 serum concentartions modified by CagA Eskandari-Nasab et al, 2012
  191. IL23A – interleukin 23, alpha subunit p19 : Upregulated by infection in gastric epithelial cell lines (AGS and MKN-28) Al-Sammak et al, 2013
  192. IRAK3 interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 3: Upregulated by H. pylori infection in bone marrow derived dendritic cells Shiu et al, 2013
  193. ITGA5 CagL binds to the integrin receptor alpha(5)beta(1) ITGA5 ITGB1Tegtmeyer et al, 2010 Upregulated by infection in in gastric epithelial AGS cells Lim et al, 2003
  194. ITGAM integrin, alpha M (complement component 3 receptor 3 subunit): H.Pylori or P. gingivalis lipopolysaccharide-induced endothelial cell activation is mediated through TLR2. Human vascular endothelial cell activation was lipid raft-dependent and involved the formation of heterotypic receptor complexes comprising of TLR2, TLR1, CD36 and CD11b/CD18 (ITGAM/ITGB2)Triantafilou et al, 2007
  195. ITGB1 binds to non-phosphorylated cagA Backert et al, 2010
  196. ITGB2 T Lymphocyte receptor for VacA toxin Sewald et al, 2008
  197. JUN jun proto-oncogene: c-fos and c-jun are activated in gastric epithelial cells Meyer-ter-Vehn et al, 2000
  198. JUNB jun B proto-oncogene: H. pylori infection increases in the expression of c-Jun, JunB, JunD, Fra-1, and c-Fos in gastric epithelial cells Ding et al, 2008
  199. JUND jun D proto-oncogene See Ding et al, 2008
  200. KIAA1524 cancerous inhibitor of PP2A; p90 autoantigen; protein CIP2A: Upregulated by infection in gastric cell lines Zhao et al, 2010
  201. KLF5 Krüppel-like factor 5 : KLF5(+)/Lrig1(+) cells increased in H. pylori-infected versus uninfected tissue (gastric epithelium) Noto et al, 2013
  202. LAMP2 lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2; annexins in host cell membranes are disrupted by the bacterium resuling fin an increase in LAMP2 expression Lin et al, 2012
  203. LATS2 LATS, large tumor suppressor, homolog 2: After H. pylori infection, miR372 and miR373 synthesis is highly inhibited, leading to the post-transcriptional release of LATS2 expression and to cell cycle arrest at the G1/S transition Belair et al, 2011.
  204. LBP lipopolysaccharide binding protein modulate the uptake of H. pylori via neutralization of anti-phagocytic effect of its lipopolysaccharide Grebowska et al, 2008.
  205. LDH lactate dehydrogenase: VacA activates the necrosis pathway (PARP activation, decreased intracellular ATP concentration, and LDH release in gastric epithelial cells Radin et al, 2011.
  206. LGALS3 lectin, galactoside-binding, soluble, (Galectin 3): t H. pylori-mediated expression of galectin-3 is dependent on delivery of CagA into the host cell cytosol and the subsequent stimulation of MAPK signalling.Fowler et al, 2006
  207. LRIG1 leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains 1: KLF5(+)/Lrig1(+) cells increased in H. pylori-infected versus uninfected tissue (gastric epithelium) Noto et al, 2013
  208. LTF H.Pylori binds to lactoferrin (important in bacterial iron accqusition) Walz et al, 2005
  209. LYN v-yes-1 Yamaguchi sarcoma viral related oncogene homolog phoshorylates and activates CagA Stein et al, 2002
  210. Immunity related GTPases are phosphorylated by ROP18: This was in mice Kaminets et al, 2010 Equivalent human genes are IRGC, IRGM and IRGQ
  211. IMPDH2 IMP (inosine 5'-monophosphate) dehydrogenase 2: Part of the H.Pylori induced phosphoproteome Knauer et al, 2008
  212. Laminin: Helicobacter pylori AlpA and AlpB bind to laminin Senkovic et al, 2011
  213. Lipid rafts VacA binds to lipid rafts in a cholesterol dependent manner Geisse et al, 2004
  214. L-DOPA interacts with H.Pylori adhesins Niehues and Hensel, 2009
  215. LDLR low density lipoprotein receptor : H. pylori infection promotes atherogenesis in heterozygous apoe(+/ --) ldlr(+/--) mice Ayada et al, 2009
  216. LEF1 lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1: H. pylori-induces nuclear accumulation and activation of beta-catenin in gastric epithelial NCI-N87 cells and lef/tcf activation , and expression of Wnt target genes was reduced in stable knockdown cell lines deficient for LRP6, Dvl2 or Dvl3 Gnad et al, 2010.
  217. LGALS1 lectin, galactoside-binding, soluble, 1: Upregulated by infection in in gastric epithelial AGS cells Lim et al, 2003
  218. LGALS3 lectin, galactoside-binding, soluble, 3 : Binds to O-antigen Fowler et al, 2006 Upregulated by infection in in gastric epithelial AGS cells Lim et al, 2003
  219. LMO7 LIM domain 7: Upregulated by infection in in gastric epithelial AGS cells Lim et al, 2003
  220. LRP1 low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1; mediates autophagy and apoptosis induced by Helicobacter pylori VacA Yahiro et al, 2012.
  221. LRP6 low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 : H. pylori-induces nuclear accumulation and activation of beta-catenin in gastric epithelial NCI-N87 cells, and expression of Wnt target genes was reduced in stable knockdown cell lines deficient for LRP6, Dvl2 or Dvl3 Gnad et al, 2010.
  222. LTF H.Pylori coccoid forms bind to lactotransferrin and plasminogen Khin et al, 1996
  223. LYN v-yes-1 Yamaguchi sarcoma viral related oncogene homolog: CagA localizes at the inner membrane of infected cells and is phosphorylated by the non-receptor tyrosine kinases c-Src, Fyn, Lyn and Yes of the Src family kinases Wessler et al, 2011
  224. MAP2K4 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (JNK activating kinase)
  225. MAP3K7 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 7 (ex TAK1), Tak1, TRAF6, and MyD88 are important signal transducers for nfkb activation in H. pylori-infected human epithelial cells.Hirata et al, 2006
  226. MAP3K14 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 14: PAK1 and nik (MAP3K14) are involved in H. pylori-induced NF-kappaB activation Neumann et al, 2006
  227. MAPK1 mitogen-activated protein kinase 1: MMP1 activated in gastric epithelial cells via JNK and ERK (MAPK1) .Krueger et al, 2006
  228. MAPK8 mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 (JNK, JNK1, JNK1A2, JNK21B1/2, PRKM8, SAPK1): required for CagA induced motility of gastric cancer cells. Snider et al, 2008
  229. MAPK14 mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 : (SBP, CSBP1, CSBP2, CSPB1, EXIP, Mxi2, PRKM14, PRKM15, RK, SAPK2A, p38, p38ALPHA) H.pylori increases cyclooxygenase 2 expression via p38MAPK/ATF2 signaling in MKN45 cells Li et al, 2009.
  230. MARK1 MAP/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 1: Binds to CagA Lu et al, 2009
  231. MARK2 MAP/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 2: binds to non-phosphorylated cagA Backert et al, 2010
  232. MARK3 MAP/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 3: binds to non-phosphorylated cagA Backert et al, 2010
  233. MARK4 MAP/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 4: Binds to CagA Lu et al, 2009
  234. MBL2 mannose-binding lectin (protein C) 2, soluble: member of the collectin family binding to saccharides on the surface of a variety of pathogenic microorganisms including H. pylori Bak-Romaniszyn et al, 2009
  235. MDC1 mediator of DNA-damage checkpoint 1: H.Pylori adhesion causes DNA double-strand breaks in primary and transformed murine and human epithelial and mesenchymal cells. The DNA breaks trigger a damage-signaling and repair response involving the ATM-dependent recruitment of TP53BP1 and MDC1-and histone H2A variant X (H2AX) phosphorylation Toiler et al, 2011.
  236. MDM2 Mdm2 p53 binding protein homolog: H pylori can negatively regulate p53 by increasing ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation via AKT1, which phosphorylates and activates this ubiquitin ligase Wei et al, 2010.
  237. Melatonin has bactericidal effects Malinovskaia et al, 2007
  238. MET met proto-oncogene (hepatocyte growth factor receptor) : binds to non-phosphorylated cagA Backert et al, 2010
  239. MIR146A induced by Infection increases the expression of miR-146a, and miR-146a may negatively regulate H. pylori-induced inflammation Li et al, 2011 overexpression of miR-146a reducews H. pylori-induced IL-8 TNF-alpha, and IL1B Li et al, 2011
  240. MIR155 microRNA 155: H.Pylori increase miR155 expression in gastric epithelial cell lines and gastric mucosal tissues Xiao et al, 2009
  241. MIR584 microRNA 584 miRNA-584 and miRNA-1290 expression up-regulated in CagA-transformed cells Zhu et al, 2012
  242. MKI67 antigen identified by monoclonal antibody Ki-67: Persistent infection associated with urease activity and p53, c-erbB-2 and Ki-67 expression in gastric mucosa Brajsa et al, 2006
  243. MLEC Malectin binds to Helicobacter Cysteine-Rich Protein C Roschitzki et al, 2011
  244. MLH1 mutL homolog 1, colon cancer, nonpolyposis type 2 (E. coli) : Increased promoter methylation associated with associated with H. pylori vacA Alves et al, 2011
  245. MMP1 matrix metallopeptidase 1 (interstitial collagenase): activated in gastric epithelial cells via JNK and ERK (MAPK1) .Krueger et al, 2006
  246. MMP7 matrix metallopeptidase 7 (matrilysin, uterine): Promoter polymorphisms affect H.Pylori-related gastric cancer Achyut et al, 2009
  247. MMP9 matrix metallopeptidase 9 (gelatinase B, 92kDa gelatinase, 92kDa type IV collagenase): Phosphorylation increased by CagA Nam et al, 2011
  248. MPO Myeloperoxidase: Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating protein releases MPO from human neutrophils Wang et al, 2008.
  249. MUC1 mucin 1, cell surface associated: BabA and SabA adhesins of H. pylori bind to MUC1 Lindén et al, 2009
  250. MUC2 – mucin 2, oligomeric mucus/gel-forming: Infection of KATO-III cells with Hp wild-type strains resulted in a transient expression of MUC2, MUC5AC, and MUC6 mRNA concomitant with those of IL1B, IL8, and TNF Perrais et al, 2013
  251. MUC5AC mucin 5AC, oligomeric mucus/gel-forming: Lewis(b) receptor. Binds to BabA Magalhães et al. 2009
  252. MUC5B mucin 5B, oligomeric mucus/gel-forming binds tio BabA and BabB Walz et al, 2005
  253. MUC6 – mucin 6, oligomeric mucus/gel-forming: Infection of KATO-III cells with Hp wild-type strains resulted in a transient expression of MUC2, MUC5AC, and MUC6 mRNA concomitant with those of IL1B, IL8, and TNF Perrais et al, 2013
  254. MUC7 mucin 7, secreted: binds to Baba and Saba adhesins Walz et al, 2009
  255. MYC v-myc myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (avian): Nuclear MYC staining is reduced in intestinal gastric tumours and related to the presence of H. pylori cagA(+). Silva-Fernandes et al, 2011
  256. MYD88 myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88) TRAF6, TAK1 and MyD88 are important signal transducers for nfkb1 activation in H. pylori-infected human epithelial cells.Hirata et al, 2006
  257. NEK9 NIMA (never in mitosis gene a)- related kinase 9 binds to Helicobacter Cysteine-Rich Protein C Roschitzki et al, 2011
  258. NCL Tipalpha binds to nucleolin Watanabe et al, 2010 binds to Helicobacter Cysteine-Rich Protein C Roschitzki et al, 2011
  259. NCKIPSD NCK interacting protein with SH3 domain Binds to Vac A de Bernard et al, 2000
  260. NeuAcalpha2-3Gal-disaccharide binds to SabA Aspholm et al, 2006
  261. NFKB1 nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 1 is activated in gastric epithelial cells Keates et al, 1997 and subsequently iNOS (NOS2) expression Zhang et al, 2000
  262. NFKBIA nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha H. pylori promotes degradation of IkappaBalpha in gastric cancer cells Maeda et al, 2000
  263. Nickel : The pathogen stores host nickel which aids colonisation Benoit et al, 2012
  264. NOD1 nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 1 recognizes peptidoglycan delivered to epithelial cells via Helicobacter pylori cagA Grubman et al, 2010
  265. NOS1 nitric oxide synthase 1, neuronal: H. pylori LPS up-regulates NOS1 in the dorsal vagal complex Quintana et al, 2005
  266. NOS2 nitric oxide synthase 2, inducible: Many bacteria including H. pylori activate nitric oxide production but H.Pylori inhibits iNOS expression at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels in macrophages Lu et al, 2011
  267. NOX1: Infection activates the oxidative burst in neutrophils Danielsson and Jurstrand 1998 via a bacterial protein hp-NAP that stimulates NADPH oxidase Satin et al, 2000
  268. NPM1 nucleophosmin (nucleolar phosphoprotein B23, numatrin): Part of the H.Pylori induced phosphoproteome Knauer et al, 2008
  269. NPM2 nucleophosmin/nucleoplasmin 2 : Part of the H.Pylori induced phosphoproteome Knauer et al, 2008
  270. ODC Ornithine decarboxylase: H. pylori induces macrophage polyamine production by upregulating the arginase 2 /ornithine decarboxylase metabolic pathway and increases hydrogen peroxide synthesis via spermidine oxidase PAOX .Gobert et al, 2011
  271. OLFM4 Olfactomedin 4: down-regulates innate immunity against Helicobacter pylori infection Liu et al, 2010
  272. PAK1 p21 protein (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase 1: PAK1 and nik (MAP3K14) are involved in H. pylori-induced NF-kappaB activation Neumann et al, 2006
  273. PAOX polyamine oxidase (exo-N4-amino) H. pylori induces macrophage polyamine production by upregulating the arginase 2 /ornithine decarboxylase metabolic pathway and increases hydrogen peroxide synthesis via spermidine oxidase PAOX .Gobert et al, 2011
  274. PARP1 poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 is activated by H.Pylori Nossa et al, 2010
  275. phosphatidylethanolamine Helicobacter pylori binds to phosphatidylethanolamine and gangliotetraosylceramide Gold et al, 1993
  276. PEBP1 phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein 1: the bacterial pathogenicity island phosphorylates RKIP, which then localizes to the nucleus activating its own transcription, inducing apoptosis. Moen et al, 2012
  277. phosphatidylserine : Direct contact of H. pylori with epithelial cells induces externalization of host phosphatidylserine, to the outer leaflet of the host plasma membrane Murata-Kamiya et al, 2010
  278. PDGFA platelet-derived growth factor alpha polypeptide: The H.Pylori protease degrades PDGF and TGF-beta Slomiany et al, 1996
  279. PDHFB platelet-derived growth factor beta polypeptide See Slomiany et al, 1996
  280. PGC progastricsin (pepsinogen C) : Expression increased in H.Pylori gastritis Ning et al, 2005
  281. PI3 – peptidase inhibitor 3, skin-derived (elafin) increased expression in infected gastric human biopsy samples Nuding et al, 2013
  282. PLAU plasminogen activator, urokinase : expression increased by infection in gastric cells Kenny et al, 2008
  283. PLAUR plasminogen activator, urokinase receptor : expression increased by infection in gastric cells Kenny et al, 2008
  284. PLCB2 phospholipase C, beta 2: Inhibition abolishes HpHSP60-induced tube formation (angiogenesis) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells Lin et al, 2010.
  285. PLCG1 phospholipase C, gamma 1: associates with CagA Churin et al, 2003
  286. PLD1 phospholipase D1, phosphatidylcholine-specific: CagA expression increases the binding of NFKB to the PLD1 promoter Kang et al, 2012
  287. PLG Plasminogen: Helicobacter pylori CCUG 17874 binds to plasminogen Pantzar et al, 1998
  288. PPARD peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta CagA activates beta-catenin, p120, and PPARD, promoting gastric epithelial cell proliferation via activation of cyclin E1. Nagy et al, 2011
  289. PPARG peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma: Activation prevents the H.Pyloroi LPS-induced reduction in mucin synthesis Slomiany and Slomiany, 2004
  290. PPP3CA protein phosphatase 3, catalytic subunit, alpha isozyme (calcineurin) VacA inhibits cell proliferation by interfering with the T-cell receptor/interleukin-2 (IL-2) signaling pathway via calcineurin Müller et al, 2011
  291. PRKCD protein kinase C, delta : Activated by CagA in gastric epithelial cells leading to RAF activation Brandt et al, 2009
  292. PSMB7 proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 7: Part of the H.Pylori induced phosphoproteome Knauer et al, 2008
  293. PTGS2 prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (prostaglandin G/H synthase and cyclooxygenase) is activated in H.Pylori gastritis Meyer et al, 2003
  294. PTK2 protein tyrosine kinase 2 ( ex FAK) activated by CagA complexed with SHP-2 (PTPN11) Tsutsumi et al , 2006
  295. PTPN11 protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 (SHP-2) Binds to and activated by cagA Zhu et al, 2005
  296. PTPRA protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, A VacA binds to RPTB alpha and RPTPbeta Isomoto et al, 2010
  297. PTPRZ1 protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor-type, Z polypeptide 1 VacA binds to RPTB alpha and RPTPbeta Isomoto et al, 2010
  298. PXN Paxillin: H. pylori infection induces paxillin phosphorylation Tabassam et al, 2011
  299. RAB7 RAB7, member RAS oncogene family retained in vacuoles by VacA toxin Terebiznik et al, 2006
  300. RAC1 ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac1) activated by H.pylori lipopolysaccharide in gastric mucosa cells Kawahara et al, 2005
  301. RAF1 v-raf-1 murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1: PRKCD is activated by CagA in gastric epithelial cells leading to RAF activation Brandt et al, 2009
  302. REG3A regenerating islet-derived 3 alpha: Bactericidal lectin whose expression is increased by CagA via STAT3 Lee et al, 2012
  303. RUNX3 runt-related transcription factor 3 binds to cagA Tsang et al, 2010
  304. SERPINB2 serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade B (ovalbumin), member 2: HP-NAP stimulates tissue factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (SERPINB2) in human blood mononuclear cells Montemurro et al, 2001
  305. SERPINE1 serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade E (nexin, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1), member 1 (Pai-1): ectopic overexpression of CagA increases the levels of PAI-1 mRNA and protein in gastric epithelial cells Keates et al, 2008
  306. SFPTD surfactant protein D binds to H.Pylori lipopolysaccharide. Moran et al, 2005
  307. SGK223 SGK223 – homolog of rat pragma of Rnd2 (Pragmin):CagA binds to the Csk SH2 domain in place of Pragmin Safari et al, 2011
  308. SHH sonic hedgehog Overexpressed in infected gastric cancer tissues Kim et al, 2010
  309. Sialylated carbohydrates SabA binds to sialylated carbohydrates Magalhães et al, 2009
    1. Sialyly Lewis X Lewis antigen system
  310. SLC1A1 solute carrier family 1 (neuronal/epithelial high affinity glutamate transporter, system Xag), member 1: NH4OH , a product secreted by H.Pylori, activates neurones in the nucleus tractus solitaris of the area postrema : 60% of the NTS neurons activated by intragastric HCl and NH4OH stained for this high affinity glutamate transporter and a high proportion of NMDA receptors Danzer et al, 2004 This region contains GRIN1, GRIN2A , GRIN2B and GRIN2D Paarmann et al, 2005
  311. SLC7A2 solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 2: Enhances Innate Immunity during Helicobacter pylori Infection Barry et al, 2011
  312. SMAD5 SMAD family member 5 Upregulated in gastric epithelial cells Nagasako et al, 2003
  313. SMAD7 SMAD family member 7 Upregulated in the gastric mucosa of infected patients Monteleone et al, 2004
  314. SREBF1 sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1: H. pylori activates sterol-responsive element-binding protein-1 (SREBP1) to repress transcription of the human Cav1 gene from sterol-responsive elements in the Cav1 promoter..Hitkova et al, 2013
  315. STAT1 signal transducer and activator of transcription 1, 91kDa: H.Pylori disrupts STAT1-mediated IFNG signal transduction in epithelial cells Mitchell et al, 2004.
  316. STAT3 signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (acute-phase response factor) : pathway activated by CagA in gastric epithelial cells Nagasako et al, 2003
  317. SMO spermine oxidase: H. pylori CagA induces SMA generating cells with oxidative DNA damage: a subpopulation of these cells are resistant to apoptosis and at risk for malignant transformation Chaturvedi et al, 2011.epithelial cells Bronte-Tinkew et al, 2009
  318. Sodium bicarbonate is a chemotactic signal for H.Pylori Cerda et al, 2003
  319. Sphingomyelin :Receptor for VacA Gupta et al, 2008
  320. SRC v-src sarcoma (Schmidt-Ruppin A-2) viral oncogene homolog (avian) phosphorylates cagA Stein et al, 2002 SRC inhibition leads to tyrosine dephosphorylation of the actin binding protein cortactin CTTN Selbach et al, 2003
  321. SST Somatostatin H.Pylori lipopolysaccharide binds to gastric somatostatin receptors Piotrowski et al, 1997
  322. SSTR2 H.Pylori lipopolysaccharide binds to gastric somatostatin receptors Piotrowski et al, 1997
  323. SSTR3 somatostatin receptor 3: H.Pylori lipopolysaccharide binds to gastric somatostatin receptors Piotrowski et al, 1997
  324. TF Helicobacter pylori adheres to apical epithelial surface and increases the basolateral uptake of transferrin and induce its transcytosis in a CagA-dependent manner, allowing the bacteria to acquire iron fom the host Tan et al, 2011
  325. TFF1 trefoil factor 1 : H. pylori lipopolysaccharide interacts with the dimeric form of TFF1, enabling binding to gastric mucin Clyne et al, 2004
  326. TGFA transforming growth factor, alpha: Serum levels t of EGF, TGF-alpha, VEGF increased in infected children Maciorkowska et al, 2010
  327. TGFB1 transforming growth factor, beta 1: The H.Pylori protease degrades PDGF and TGF-beta Slomiany et al, 1996
  328. TGFB2 transforming growth factor, beta 2: Induced by infection in gastric epithelial cells Beswick et al, 2011
  329. TJP1 tight junction protein 1 (zona occludens 1) binds to non-phosphorylated cagA Backert et al, 2010
  330. TLR1 H.Pylori or P. gingivalis lipopolysaccharide-induced endothelial cell activation is mediated through TLR2. Human vascular endothelial cell activation was lipid raft-dependent and involved the formation of heterotypic receptor complexes comprising of TLR2, TLR1, CD36 and CD11b/CD18 Triantafilou et al, 2007
  331. TLR2 toll-like receptor 2: H. pylori specific membrane bound lipoprotein HpaA recognises TLR2 Lindgren et al, 2010
  332. TLR4 toll-like receptor 4: H.Pylori HSP60 activates TLR2 and to a lesser extent TLR4 Takenaka et al, 2004
  333. TLR5 toll-like receptor 5: Other bacterial flagellins, but not those from H.Pylori bind to TLR5, although they stimulate its expression Lee et al, 2003
  334. TNF tumor necrosis factor induced by Helicobacter protein TIPalpha Tosi et al, 2009
  335. TP53 tumor protein p53 upregulated by infection but H pylori can also negatively regulate p53 by increasing ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation via AKT1 activation, which phosphorylates and activates the ubiquitin ligase HDM2.Wei et al, 2010
  336. TP53BP1 tumor protein p53 binding protein 1: H.Pylori adhesion causes DNA double-strand breaks in primary and transformed murine and human epithelial and mesenchymal cells. The DNA breaks trigger a damage-signaling and repair response involving the ATM-dependent recruitment of TP53BP1 and mediator of DNA damage checkpoint protein 1 (MDC1)-and histone H2A variant X (H2AX) phosphorylation Toiler et al, 2011.
  337. TP53BP2 tumor protein p53 binding protein, 2 (aspp2): binds to cagA Buti et al, 2011
  338. TP73 tumor protein p73: Upregulated by infection of gastric epithelial cells Wei et al, 2008
  339. TRAF6 TNF receptor-associated factor 6 , TAK1 TRAF6 and MyD88 are important signal transducers for nfkb activation in H. pylori-infected human epithelial cells.Hirata et al, 2006
  340. TRIB3 tribbles homolog 3 (Drosophila): H. pylori infection was associated with decreased expression of TRIB3 in human gastric epithelial cell lines and tissue samples Smith et al, 2011.
  341. TUBA1B tubulin, alpha 1b binds to Helicobacter Cysteine-Rich Protein C Roschitzki et al, 2011
  342. TXN Thioredoxin Protectes against Helicobacter felis gastritis Kawasaki et al, 2005
  343. UBA1 ubiquitin-like modifier activating enzyme 1: H.Pylori virulence factors accumulate in particle-rich cytoplasmic structures in human gastric epithelium : These contain VacA, CagA, urease and bacterial outer membrane proteins with NOD1 receptor, ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1, polyubiquitinated proteins, proteasome components and potentially oncogenic proteins (SHP2 and ERKs) Necci et al, 2010
  344. UBE2N ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2N: nvolved in H. pylori-mediated TAK1 ubiquitination Lamb et al, 2013
  345. Urea, flurofamide, acetohydroxamic acid, and sodium bicarbonate are chemotactic signals for the bacterium Nakamura et al, 1998
  346. USF1 upstream transcription factor 1: H. pylori-induced promoter hypermethylation downregulates USF1 and USF2 transcription factor gene expression.Bussière et al, 2010
  347. USF2 upstream transcription factor 2, c-fos interacting: H. pylori-induced promoter hypermethylation downregulates USF1 and USF2 transcription factor gene expression.Bussière et al, 2010
  348. USP7 ubiquitin specific peptidase 7 (herpes virus-associated): H. pylori decreases expression and activity (partially cagPAI- and CagA-dependent). in gastric epithelial cells Coombs et al, 2011
  349. VASP vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein: phosphorylated by infection Knauer et al, 2008
  350. VRK1 vaccinia related kinase 1: activity reduced after H. pylori infection in gastric epithelial cells Fehri et al, 2009
  351. VTN Vitronectin binds to H.Pylori Ringnér et al, 1994
  352. VWF H .Pylori binds to von Willebrand factor Byrne et al, 2003
  353. XBP1 X-box binding protein 1: The unfolded protein response is activated in H.Pylori related cancer involving XBP1, HSPA5 and CHOP (DDIT3) Baird et al, 2013.
  354. YES1 v-yes-1 Yamaguchi sarcoma viral oncogene homolog 1: CagA localizes at the inner membrane of infected cells and is phosphorylated by the non-receptor tyrosine kinases c-Src, Fyn, Lyn and Yes of the Src family kinases Wessler et al, 2011
  355. Lacto-N-difucohexaose I binds to Helicobacter pylori.Miyazaki et al, 2010
  356. Helicobacter fatty acid cis-9,10-methyleneoctadecanoic acid directly activates protein kinase C Beil et al, 1998 and increases intracellular calcium Beil et al, 1998

High throughput experiments

cDNA array analysis of cag pathogenicity island-associated Helicobacter pylori epithelial cell response genes. Cox JM, Clayton CL, Tomita T, Wallace DM, Robinson PA, Crabtree JE : Infect Immun. 2001 Nov;69(11):6970-80

Gastric epithelial cells: Upregulated A2M ADAM10 ADAM11 ADAM15 ADAM20 ADAM21 API5 AREG BAX BCL2 BCL2L1 BTF3 CCND1 CD138 CD55 CD68 CSF2RB CSF3R CSK DDR1 EEF1A1 EZR FGFR2 FOS FTL GADD45A GNAS GNB2 GTF3A HDGF HLA-B HNRNPA1 HPYR1 HSP90AA1 HSP90B1 HSPD1 IDS IL17 IL3RA IL4R IL7 IL8 IL9R ITGAL ITGAM ITGAX ITGB4 JAG1 MAP2K3 MEFV NACA NDUFA4 NFKB1 NFKBIA NOS2 NUCB1 OSM OSMR PABPC1 PDIA6 POR RAD23A RPL28 RPL6 SHB SLC7A5 SNRPG TAGLN2 TCEB2 TIMP1 TIMP2 TMSB4X TNFRSF1A TNFRSF1B TP53 TPT1 TPT1 TSC22D1 TUBA1B TUBB TXNIP VEGFA


Analysis of Gene Expression Profile of AGS Cells Stimulated by Helicobacter pylori Adhesion.
Kim N, Park WY, Kim JM, Park YS, Lee DH, Park JH, Kim JS, Jung HC, Song IS.Gut Liver. 2007 Jun;1(1):40-8. Epub 2007 Jun 30.

Upregulated: ACIN1 ADAM11 ADAM17 ADAM22 ADAMTS8 ARFGEF1 ARHGEF3 ASCL2 BCAR3 CA1 CAPN9 CARHSP1 CASP3 CASP7 CASP8 CD44 CHC1 CLCN3 CORIN CREB5 DBNL DDEF2 DMP1 ELF5 ERCC1 ETS2 FBLN1 FGF2 GPI GPR83 GRN HIST1H1A HMGN1 HOXA13 HSF1 IFNA8 IGFBP3 IL1B IL1F5 IL8 IRF5 KLK3 MAF MAFF MAFG MBD1 MCF2 MNAB MRE11A MXD4 NR1D2 NR2E1 OGG1 PAX9 PITX1 PLCE1 POLR3F POU3F1 PROK1 PRSS1 PSMB10 PTP4A1 RAI1 RASA1 RBL1 REL RGS9 SIM2 SLC25A3 SLC34A1 SLC4A2 SMARCA2 SMARCD3 SORBS1 SOX1 SRCAP TAF7L TCF19 TGFA THRA TLL2 TNF USP18 USP3 USP32 USP7 VEGFC VIPR2 WT1 ZBTB7 ZIC1 ZNF145 ZNF192 ZNF24 ZNF354C

Downregulated: ARF3 AWP1 CMA1 CNTN2 CSDA FAF1 GDNF GTPBP4 NBR1 MYF5 PACSIN1 PCDHA1 TRAF4


Helicobacter pylori induces beta3GnT5 in human gastric cell lines, modulating expression of the SabA ligand sialyl-Lewis x.
Marcos NT, Magalhães A, Ferreira B, Oliveira MJ, Carvalho AS, Mendes N, Gilmartin T, Head SR, Figueiredo C, David L, Santos-Silva F, Reis CA. J Clin Invest. 2008 Jun;118(6):2325-36.

Upregulated: ACVR1 AREG B3GNT5 BMP2 CCL20 CCR11 CD69 CD83 CSF2 CXCL1 CXCL10 CXCL11 CXCL2 CXCL3 FGF2 ICAM1 IFNAR1 IFNAR2 IGFBP1 IL1R2 IL2RG IL6ST IL7R IL8 INHBA JUNB LIF OSMR PIGA PSEN1 SDC4 TNFRSF9 VEGFA

Downregulated: B3GNT1 BMP4 BMP7 FGFR3 ST6GAL1 ST6GALNAC1 UGT8

Helicobacter pylori induces an antimicrobial response in rhesus macaques in a cag pathogenicity island-dependent manner.
Hornsby MJ, Huff JL, Kays RJ, Canfield DR, Bevins CL, Solnick JV. Gastroenterology. 2008 Apr;134(4):1049-57.

Upregulated at all time points: DEFB4A DMBT1 DUOX2 LCN2 PI3 ADAMDEC1
ADAP2 AIM2 ANGPT2 ANP32D ARPC4 C16ORF3 C8A CAD CD3D CEACAM1 CHI3L1 CHRM2 CHST10 DAB1 DEFB4A DLX6 DMBT1 DUOX1 DUOX2 E2F2 EDN2 ENO3 EPHA1 ESRRB EXOG HIST1H2AC HOXC5 IFNA1 INPPL1 KCNS1 KIF5A KIR2DS1 LAIR2 LAT2 LCN2 LY6G6D MMP7 NCAM2 NRGN NT5A OR1G1 PAK2 PCDHGA3 PCYT1B PDC PDSS2 PI3 PIK3C2B PNP PSG5 PTPN7 RAB33A RGS20 SAP30 SH2D2A SIGLEC5 SLC9A3R2 SOX18 SOX21 SPINK2 SPRR2A SRP68 ST6GAL1 SVEP1 TBX5 TGM4 TRIM34 TRPC4 UNC93B1

Biphasic: ACOX2 ACTC1 ADCY9 AIF1 AKTIP ALAD AMBN AP1G1 ARF4 ARPC4 ART3 ASPN ATF6 ATP5G2 ATP5J2 ATP8B1 ATXN3 B4GALT6 BAD BCCIP BUB3 C11ORF10 C19ORF2 C1QB CADM1 CALD1 CCKAR CCL18 CCT2 CD33 CD36 CDC14B CDH10 CDIPT CHKA CKB CLGN CLIC4 CNGB3 COL15A1 CPSF1 CSPG5 CXCL13 CYB5R2 CYP1A2 CYP20A1 CYP2B6 CYP2D6 DCXR DGUOK DKC1 DLG4 DNAJB6 DUOX1 DUSP6 EGFL7 EID1 EMILIN1 EMR1 EPHA4 EPX EXOG FAM189B FAM189B FBXL4 FGF13 FH FHL5 FLOT1 GC GDF5 GLIPR1 GPR171 GPR50 GRIN2D GSTM4 HADHA HAO1 HAPLN2 HIST1H2AI HIST1H3J HLA-DQA1 HLA-DRA HLA-DRB3 HMGB1 HOXC8 HOXD10 HS3ST2 HTT ID2 IGF2BP3 JAK3 KCNE1L KCNJ1 KCNQ1 KDM5D KHDRBS3 KIAA1704 KISS1 KLF6 KLK13 KPNA4 KRIT1 KRT12 LAT2 LCK LDHB LECT1 LEMD3 LEMD3 LIM2 LMOD1 LOC81691 LOC81691 LRMP LRP8 LSM4 MAFB MAGEB3 MATR3 MED16 MEIS2 METAP2 METAP2 MICB MMD MSN MSRB2 MYH11 MYH7B MYLK NANS NAP1L1 NGFRAP1 NOTCH2 NPTN NR2F1 NRCAM NSDHL ODC1 OMD OMP OPN1SW OR51E2 ORC2L ORM2 OTC P2RY2 P2RY2 PCTP PDE2A PDGFRL PGCP PLAT PLCB4 PLTP PPAP2B PRMT1 PSAT1 PSIP1 PSMB1 PSMB7 PSMC3 PTBP2 PTEN PTK7 PWP1 QPRT RANBP5 RASA4 RBM14 RBMS1 RGS6 RIT2 RNMT RPL38 RRAS2 RS1 RYR3 S100A2 SEC13 SELT SEMA3A SIGLEC5 SLC22A14 SLC26A1 SLC4A4 SMAD9 SNRPD1 SNTG1 SOX15 SRGN SST STAG3L1 TAF13 TAGLN TARBP1 TBCB TBRG4 TCP11 TECR TIMM23B TIMP2 TIMP4 TINF2 TLL2 TLN1 TMEM50A TNFRSF4 TOP2B TPM2 TRADD TRADD TREM2 TRH TRIM36 TXNDC9 UGT1A1 UVRAG VPS26A WASL WBP11 WNT2 YEATS4 ZBTB17 ZFP84 ZNF117 ZNF167

Protein interaction network related to Helicobacter pylori infection response. Kim KK, Kim HB. World J Gastroenterol. 2009 Sep 28;15(36):4518-28.

Literature extracted proteins showing significant changes after H.Pylori infection: ALOX5 CIITA C2 C3 C4A CCL3 CCL4 CCL18 CCL19 CD180 CD47 CD53 CRP CXCL13 CXCL2 CXCL3 CXCL9 FAIM3 HCK HLA-DPB1 HLA-DQB1 HLA-DRB5 HLA-DMA HSPH1 IFITM1 IFNGR1 IL18RAP IL8 IRF4 ITGAX ITGB2 LY96 MADCAM1 MAPK8 PLAT PTPRC RAC2 SLAMF1 SOCS2 STAT6 TLR1 TLR2 TLR3 TLR4 TLR5 TLR6 VCAM1

Hub Nodes : ALOX5 BTK CCL4 CSNK2A1 CXCR4 HCK HLA-DMA HLA-DRB5 HMGB1 IL10RA ITGB2 MAP2K1 MAPK8 NFKBIA PLAT PTPRC RAC2 RELA STAT6 TLR2 TLR4 TRAF4

Core Network: ARRB1 BLNK BRCA1 BTK CCL4 CD14 CDK5 CDK9 CXCR4 DOK1 FOS HCK HMGB1 HSP90AB1 HSPH1 IFNGR1 IKBKAP IL10RA IL13 IL17RD IL18RAP IL1A IL1RAPL1 IL4R IL8 IL8RA IL8RB IRAK1 IRS1 ITGAD ITGB2 JAK2 JAQK1 JUN LCP2 LYN MAP2K1 MAP3K2 MAP3K7 MAPK3 MAPK8 MAPK8IP3 MYC MYD88 NFKB1 NFKBIA NR3C1 PIK3R1 PLAT PRKCZ PTPN6 PTPRC RAC1 RASA1 REL RELA SERPING1 SIGIRR SOCS2 STAT1 STAT2 STAT3 STAT5A STAT5B STAT6 SYK TICAM1 TLR1 TLR10 TLR2 TLR3 TLR4 TLR5 TLR6 TLR7 TLR9 TNFSF11 TRAF4 TRAF6 VAV1 VCAM1 VIL2

Time-series gene expression profiles in AGS cells stimulated with Helicobacter pylori.
You YH, Song YY, Meng FL, He LH, Zhang MJ, Yan XM, Zhang JZ. World J Gastroenterol. 2010 Mar 21;16(11):1385-96.

Differentially expressed clusters: AASDHPPT ACOT2 AKAP11 AKAP11 AMACR AMD1 ANGPT2 ANKRD1 ANKRD33 ARNTL ARRDC4 ASF1A ASNS ATF3 ATG4C ATP2C1 AXL B3GALT3 BANP BCAR3 BCKDHB BLOC1S2 BMP4 BRD8 BST2 C12ORF48 C17ORF58 C1ORF25 C2ORF15 C4ORF13 C4ORF18 C6ORF15 C7ORF25 C9ORF23 CACHD1 CARS CASP8 CBR4 CCL5 CD55 CDCA1 CDKN1C CEACAM1 CHID1 CLDN22 COG6 COG8 CPEB4 CREB5 CTGF CXCL10 CXCL11 CYP2J2 CYR61 DDC DDX58 DEPDC1 DIXDC1 DNAJB14 DOC1 DPY19L3 DSCR1 DUSP1 DUSP10 DUSP4 EBI2 EFNA4 EGR2 EID3 ELOVL6 EPB41L4B EPB41L4B EVI1 F3 FAM107B FAM46C FAM63B FBXO30 FGB FGD4 FGD6 FGF20 FLJ11286 FLJ12078 FLJ30596 FLJ33718 FLJ39370 FLRT3 FLT4 FRMD5 G1P3 GABARAPL1 GABPA GFPT2 GLE1L GLI2 GRHL3 HBEGF HBP1 HEG1 HERC4 HERPUD1 HIF1A HLA-B HLA-F HMOX1 HOXB9 HS3ST1 HSDL1 HSPB8 IER2 IFI27 IFI44 IFIH1 IFIT1 IFIT2 IFIT3 IL23A IL29 IL8 INHBE IRF6 ITGA2 ITPR2 KIAA1024 KIAA1754 KIAA1799 KLF10 KLF2 KLF4 KLF6 KLHL23 KNTC2 KRT7 KRTAP2-1 KRTAP2-4 KRTHA4 LDLR LGR5 LIPG LNK LOC153222 LOC159090 LOC389834 LOC642432 LOC643031 LOC645102 LOC646561 LOC653094 LOC653101 LOC653717 LOC653783 LOC653857 LOC90693 LOC91461 LRIG3 LRRC1 LRRC8D LRRC8D MANEA MAP3K1 MCL1 MERTK MGC12965 MGC14376 MGC33214 MINA MKL1 MLKL MOBK1B MPHOSPH9 MRPL35 MRRF MTBP MTMR4 NAPE-PLD NBLA04196 NEDD9 NFE2L3 NPPB NUFIP1 OAS1 OAS2 OTUD1 OTUD6B P4HA1 PAQR3 PCK2 PDIK1L PDLIM5 PEX1 PGBD2 PGM2 PHLDB2 PIGV PIM3 PIP5K1B PMAIP1 PMS1 POLM PPAP2B PPP1R3F PRKCQ PRRT2 PSG6 PSMB8 PSME1 PSPH PTK9 RARRES3 RBL2 REG1A RFC3 RFP RIT1 RN7SK RNF19 RP11-311P8.3 RSAD2 S100A7 SCAMP1 SCYL3 SEC14L1 SEMA3C SERPINB2 SERPINE1 SESN2 SFRS14 SGOL2 SGPP2 SH2D3A SH3RF2 SKP2 SLC25A20 SLC2A3 SLC33A1 SLC35A5 SLC38A2 SLC4A7 SLC7A11 SLCO2A1 SMAD7 SPATA7 SRPX2 ST6GAL1 STK17B STYK1 SYTL3 TCF12 TDP1 TERC TFF1 TGFBI THBS1 TIGD2 TINAGL1 TLR4 TM4SF1 TMED7 TMEM117 TMEM19 TMEM88 TMTC3 TMTC4 TNFRSF9 TNKS1BP1 TRIB3 TRUB1 TSC22D1 TSPAN12 UBE2C UBE2H UPP1 USP47 UST VPS13A VTN ZBTB32 ZBTB7B ZDHHC11 ZDHHC23 ZFP36L1 ZNF278 ZNF318 ZNF642 ZSWIM4

Autoimmunity: Autoantibodies in H.Pylori infection

Biochemistry

  • VacA, produced by cytotoxic strains of Helicobacter pylori, causes cellular vacuolar degeneration deBernard et al, 1995 and causes cytoplasmic calcium oscillations de Bernard et al, 2005

  • H.Pylori activates extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in gastric epithelial cells Keates et al, 1999 leading to MMP1 activation Krueger et al, 2006

  • vacuolating toxin increased the levels of inositol phosphates, cytosolic free calcium concentration and adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate in gastric adenocarcinoma cells Chan et al, 1996

  • Infection can be asociated with increased low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels Kim et al, 2011

Genes associated with infection

Diseases

  • Causes gastritis and peptic ulcer Marshall and Warren
  • H.Pylori infection has been associated with lung cancer Deng et al, 2013
  • Risk factor for osteoporosis in males Figura et al, 2005
  • H.Pylori infection causes iron deficiency and associated anaemia Hershko and Skikne 2009
  • H. pylori infection promotes atherogenesis in heterozygous apoe(+/ --) ldlr(+/--) mice.Ayada et al, 2009
  • Chronic infections (H.Pylori or C.Pneumoniae modify the serum lipid profile to increase the risk of atherosclerosis Adiloglu et al, 2005
  • H. pylori-seropositive patients show higher total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, apolipoprotein B and lower values for high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and apolipoprotein A1 Sung et al, 2005
  • Chronic H. pylori infection reduces plasma levels of HDL cholesterol and its eradication increases HDL, APOA1 and APOA2. Scharnagl et al, 2004
  • H.Pylori infection is associated with Alzheimer's disease Malaguarnera et al, 2004 but not in Japan, where infection rates are high Shiota et al, 2011
  • H.Pylori eradication increased the lifespan of Alzheimer's disease patients and improved cognitive performance Kountouras et al, 2010
  • H.Pylori has been associated with Parkinson's disease and can also affect the absorption of L-DOPA Refs
  • Association between schizophrenia and diminished risk for duodenal and gastric ulcers but not for gastrojejunal ulcers Ozdemir et al, 2007
  • Helicobacter pylori infection may protect against asthma and allergy Konturek et al, 2008.
  • Helicobacter pylori seropositivity has been associated with fibromyalgia Akkaya et al, 2011
  • Association with chronic obstructive pulmonary disase (COPD) Hashemi et al, 2011
  • Helicobacter pylori infection has been implicated in the pathogenesis of acne rosacea and idiopathic chronic urticaria, and in autoimmune diseases including autoimmune gastric atrophy, rheumatoid arthritis, anti phospholipid antibody syndrome, autoimmune thyroiditis, Sjoegren syndrome, Henoch-Schoenlein purpura, and Type B insulin resistance syndrome Ohta, 2010.
  • Association with autoimmune thyroid disease Shi et al, 2013

Drugs and compounds inhibiting Helicobacter pylori growth

  • Current treatments: amoxicillin, clarithromycin and a proton pump inhibitor (omeprazole, lansoprazole, metronidazole pantoprazole or esomeprazole). MIMS Fact sheet
  • Difluoromethylornithine inhibits growth Barry et al, 2011
  • Dietary sulforaphane-rich broccoli sprouts reduce colonization and limit gastritis in Helicobacter pylori-infected mice and humans Yanaka et al, 2009.
  • 3-Methylsulfinylpropyl isothiocyanate, a component of broccoli sprouts Metabolome
  • 3'-Sialyllactosamine inhibits the effects of H.Pylori on neutrophil activation Metabolome
  • as does ecabet sodium Kusomoto et al, 2005
  • Capsidiol inhibits H.Pylori growth Metabolome
  • Lactoferrin inhibits growth Bergamaschi et al, 2007
  • Lactic, acetic and hydrochloric acids and six strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus and one strain of Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus inhibited H. pylori growth where as Bifidobacterium bifidus, Ped. pentosaceus and Lact. bulgaricus did not. Midolo et al, 1995
  • Progesterone and 17a-hydroxyprogesterone caproate and to a leser extent estradiol or androstenedione inhibit H.Pylori growth Hosoda et al, 2011

 

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