images by Chris
Carter is licensed under a Creative
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Examples of some of the viruses incorporated into the human genome
The Human genome/proteome reads from left to right and the coloured and black
lines indicate degrees of homology of human proteins with the respective viruses.
Individual BLAST data can be found from the numbers in the last grey column
on this page
Firstly: The entire human genome, coding and
non-coding appears to be composed of viral DNA: The example shows human chromosome
10 (128,985,118 nucleotides) (Chromosome 10 DNA vs translated viral proteomes
BLAST). 119,857 hits from both RNA and DNA viruses were recorded.
See also this
set of papers
- Geuking MB, Weber J, Dewannieux M, Gorelik E, Heidmann T, Hengartner H,
Zinkernagel RM, Hangartner L. Recombination of retrotransposon and exogenous
RNA virus results in nonretroviral cDNA integration. Science. 2009, 323,:393-6.
- Liu H, Fu Y, Jiang D, Li G, Xie J, Cheng J, Peng Y, Ghabrial SA, Yi X.
Widespread horizontal gene transfer from double-stranded RNA viruses to
eukaryotic nuclear genomes. J Virol. 2010 Nov;84(22):11876-87.
- Ricco R, Kanduc D. Hepatitis B virus and Homo sapiens proteome-wide analysis:
A profusion of viral peptide overlaps in neuron-specific human proteins.
Biologics. 2010 May 25;4:75-81.
- Kanduc D. Describing the hexapeptide identity platform between the influenza
A H5N1 and Homo sapiens proteomes. Biologics. 2010 Sep 13;4:245-61.
- Kanduc D, Stufano A, Lucchese G, Kusalik A. Massive peptide sharing between
viral and human proteomes. Peptides. 2008 Oct;29(10):1755-66.
- Kusalik A, Bickis M, Lewis C, Li Y, Lucchese G, Marincola FM, Kanduc D.
Widespread and ample peptide overlapping between HCV and Homo sapiens proteomes.
Peptides. 2007 Jun;28(6):1260-7. Epub 2007 Apr 8.
- Katzourakis A, Gifford RJ. Endogenous viral elements in animal genomes.
PLoS Genet. 2010 Nov 18;6(11)
- Carter CJ. Alzheimer's disease: a pathogenetic autoimmune disorder caused
by herpes simplex in a gene-dependent manner. Int J Alzheimers Dis. 2010 Dec
- Arbuckle JH, Medveczky MM, Luka J, Hadley SH, Luegmayr A, Ablashi D, Lund
TC, Tolar J, De Meirleir K, Montoya JG, Komaroff AL, Ambros PF, Medveczky
PG. The latent human herpesvirus-6A genome specifically integrates in telomeres
chromosomes in vivo and in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Mar 23;107(12):5563-8.
Secondly: Different viruses appear to have been inserted at different times.
Recent insertions are less fragmented and more homologous, but to fewer proteins
Older insertions are more fragmented, less homologous, but to many more proteins
(translated viral genome vs human proteome BLAST).These short inserts may also
represent partial insertion of viral DNA fragments